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A novel bioflocculant ZS-7 produced by Bacillus licheniformis X14 was investigated with regard to its synthesis and application to low temperature drinking water treatment. The effects of culture conditions including pH, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, inoculum size and shaking speed on ZS-7 production were studied. The purified bioflocculant(More)
Efficient chemotaxis requires directional sensing and cell polarization. We describe a signaling mechanism involving G beta gamma, PAK-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (PIX alpha), Cdc42, and p21-activated kinase (PAK) 1. This pathway is utilized by chemoattractants to regulate directional sensing and directional migration of myeloid cells. Our(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding rhodopsin, the visual pigment in rod photoreceptors, lead to retinal degeneration in species from Drosophila to man. The pathogenic sequence from rod cell-specific mutation to degeneration of rods and cones remains unclear. To understand the disease process in man, we studied heterozygotes with 18 different rhodopsin gene(More)
Members of genus Peptostreptococcus have previously been found to be distantly related to the type species, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence similarities. They were divided into three major phylogenetic groups, and their peptidoglycan structure and biochemical traits differed between groups. The reclassification of the(More)
The term, 'retinitis pigmentosa', refers to a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases that cause degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors in the human retina. Loss of photoreceptor cells is usually followed by alterations in the retinal pigment epithelium and retinal glia. Ultimately, degenerative changes occur in the inner retinal neurons, blood(More)
PURPOSE To further characterize the retinas of Pro3471Leu rhodopsin transgenic pigs, a model for human retinitis pigmentosa. METHODS Retinas from normal and transgenic pigs, newborn to 20 months old, were processed for light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical examination. RESULTS At birth, rod numbers were normal in the transgenic retinas, but(More)
The mechanism by which the high-bone-mass (HBM) mutation (G171V) of the Wnt coreceptor LRP5 regulates canonical Wnt signaling was investigated. The mutation was previously shown to reduce DKK1-mediated antagonism, suggesting that the first YWTD repeat domain where G171 is located may be responsible for DKK-mediated antagonism. However, we found that the(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate bone spicule pigmentation, a fundus feature in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) formed by migration of pigment-containing cells to perivascular sites in the inner retina. METHODS The authors performed light and electron microscopy, including immunocytochemistry, on the retinas from ten patients with RP and five normal donors. RESULTS The(More)
In animal models for retinitis pigmentosa (RP), rod photoreceptors show abnormal distribution of rhodopsin prior to undergoing cell death. To elucidate the steps in degeneration of human photoreceptors, immunocytochemistry was performed on donor retinas from 15 RP patients and five normal subjects. Rhodopsin immunolabeling in the normal retinas was(More)