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Orexin neurons are exclusively localized in the lateral hypothalamic area and project their fibers to the entire central nervous system, including the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). Dysfunction of the orexin system results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy, but the role of orexin in physiological sleep-wake regulation and the mechanisms(More)
The current theory of image formation in electron microscopy has been semi-quantitatively successful in describing data. The theory involves parameters due to the transfer function of the microscope (defocus, spherical aberration constant, and amplitude constant ratio) as well as parameters used to describe the background and attenuation of the signal. We(More)
Epilepsy is characterized by neuronal hyperexcitability and hypersynchronization. Disruption of electroencephalographically (EEG) synchronized epileptiform discharges may be a possible therapy for epilepsy. In the present study, to clarify the role of EEG desynchronization on epilepsy, we investigated the effect of modafinil, a potent wake-promoting(More)
Spatial distribution pattern of biological related species present unique opportunities and challenges to explain species coexistence. In this study, we explored the spatial distributions and associations among congeneric species at both the species and genus levels to explain their coexistence through examining the similarities and differences at these two(More)
Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of l-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a member of IL-1 family, is primarily an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which reduces systemic and local inflammation. However, the expression and role of IL-37 in Graves' disease (GD) remains unknown. This study aims to measure the levels of serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) IL-37 in patients with Graves'(More)
Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 circulates in many countries and has caused large epidemics, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, since 1997. In April 2012, an undiagnosed fatal disease with neurological involvement and respiratory distress occurred in young children admitted to the Kantha Bopha Children's(More)
In this study, the homozygous tubby (tub/tub) mutant mouse, with an early progressive hearing loss and photoreceptor degeneration, was used as a model system to examine the effects of systemic administration of a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, sulforaphane (SF), on photoreceptor degeneration. Several novel observations have been made: (i) the mRNA and(More)
PLP1 and DM20, major myelin proteins, are generated by developmentally regulated alternative splicing. In the post-natal brain, PLP1 is the predominant product. Deletion of a splicing enhancer in PLP1 intron 3 causes a mild form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and reduces PLP1 specific splicing in vitro (Hobson, G. M., Huang, Z., Sperle, K., Stabley, D. L.,(More)