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The current theory of image formation in electron microscopy has been semi-quantitatively successful in describing data. The theory involves parameters due to the transfer function of the microscope (defocus, spherical aberration constant, and amplitude constant ratio) as well as parameters used to describe the background and attenuation of the signal. We(More)
Spatial distribution pattern of biological related species present unique opportunities and challenges to explain species coexistence. In this study, we explored the spatial distributions and associations among congeneric species at both the species and genus levels to explain their coexistence through examining the similarities and differences at these two(More)
Ebola viruses are the infectious agent causing the Ebola virus disease (EVD). They belong to the genus Ebolavirus of the Filoviridae family and have been categorized into five known species: Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly Zaire Ebola virus), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and Reston virus (RESTV). EBOV was first(More)
Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 circulates in many countries and has caused large epidemics, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, since 1997. In April 2012, an undiagnosed fatal disease with neurological involvement and respiratory distress occurred in young children admitted to the Kantha Bopha Children's(More)
BACKGROUND Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease, which has been prevalent in Asia-Pacific regions, causing significant morbidity and mortality in young children. Antibodies elicited by experimental EV71 vaccines could neutralize infection in vitro and passively protect animal models from lethal challenge,(More)
BACKGROUND The 2009 swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) H1N1 pandemic has caused more than 18,000 deaths worldwide. Vaccines against the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza virus are useful for preventing infection and controlling the pandemic. The kinetics of the immune response following vaccination with the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza vaccine need further investigation. (More)
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious public health problem that has emerged over the past several decades. Pathogen detection by the Chinese national HFMD surveillance system has focused mainly on enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). Therefore, epidemiological information regarding the other causative enteroviruses is limited. To(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease that occurs in young children. Neither antiviral agents nor vaccines are available for efficiently combating viral infection. Study of EV71–host interplay is important for understanding viral infection and developing strategies for prevention and therapy. Here the interactions(More)
BACKGROUND Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is a member of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family and it is a major etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common illness affecting children. CVA16 possesses a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome containing approximately 7410 bases. Current understanding of the(More)