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Confidence intervals are often provided to estimate a treatment difference. When the sample size is small, as is typical in early phases of clinical trials, confidence intervals based on large sample approximations may not be reliable. In this report, we propose test-based methods of constructing exact confidence intervals for the difference in two binomial(More)
Excessive activation of the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a prominent role in various of models of cellular injury. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer, a product of PARP-1 activity, as a previously uncharacterized cell death signal. PAR polymer is directly toxic to neurons, and degradation of PAR polymer by(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is a member of the PARP enzyme family, and, similarly to PARP-1, catalyzes the formation of ADP-ribose polymers in response to DNA damage. While PARP-1 overactivation contributes to ischemic cell death, no information is available regarding the role of PARP-2. In this study, we evaluated the impact of PARP-2 deletion(More)
UNLABELLED Kappa-opioid receptors (KOR) have been implicated in neuroprotection from ischemic neuronal injury, but less work has been performed with transient focal cerebral ischemia to determine the role of KOR during reperfusion. We tested the effects of a selective and specific KOR agonist, BRL 52537 hydrochloride(More)
In this paper, we propose a simultaneous covering induc-tive logic programming approach RPBL (Relational Paths-Based Learning). It uses relational paths as explanations for positive training examples to overcome the explosion problem existed in standard inductive logic programming. It benefits greatly from a simultaneous covering strategy, and avoids local(More)
Handling exceptions in a knowledge-based system is an important issue in many application domains, such as medical domain. Recently, there is an increasing interest in nonmonotonic extension of description logics to handle exceptions in ontologies. In this paper, we propose three preferential semantics for plausible subsumption to deal with exceptions in(More)