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Small RNAs of 21-25 nucleotides (nt), including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), act as guide RNAs to silence target-gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. In addition to a Dicer homolog, DCL1, the biogenesis of miRNAs in Arabidopsis requires another protein, HEN1. miRNAs are reduced in abundance and increased in size in hen1(More)
The molecular mechanisms occurring in the nervous system that underlie behavioral responses to ethanol remain poorly understood. Here, we report that molecular requirements for two of these responses, initial sensitivity and the development of rapid tolerance, comap to the same small set of neurons. We show that null homer mutant flies exhibit both(More)
The subjective visual space perceived by humans does not reflect a simple transformation of objective physical space; rather, perceived space has an idiosyncratic relationship with the real world. To date, there is no consensus about either the genesis of perceived visual space or the implications of its peculiar characteristics for visually guided(More)
Methylation on the base or the ribose is prevalent in eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Artificially introduced 2'-O-methyl groups in small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can stabilize siRNAs in serum without affecting their activities in RNA interference in mammalian cells. Here, we show that(More)
In mice, all of the six retinal neuron types are generated from common multipotent retinal progenitors, and their differentiation from progenitors is regulated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Previously, we showed that targeted deletion of the atonal (ato) homologue math5 blocked the differentiation of most retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), revealing(More)
Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83. Smaug represses the translation of nanos mRNA but has only a modest effect on its stability, whereas it destabilizes Hsp83 mRNA but(More)
The mammalian retina comprises six major neuronal cell types and one glial type that are further classified into multiple subtypes based on their anatomical and functional differences. Nevertheless, how these subtypes arise remains largely unknown at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of Bhlhb5, a bHLH transcription factor of the(More)
PURPOSE The authors studied retinal gene expression changes in rats after experimental intraocular pressure elevation and optic nerve transection to elucidate molecular mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. METHODS Translimbal laser photocoagulation was used to induce unilateral IOP elevation in 41 albino Wistar rats. In 38 additional animals,(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants bear a methyl group on the ribose of the 3' terminal nucleotide. We showed previously that the methylation of miRNAs and siRNAs requires the protein HEN1 in vivo and that purified HEN1 protein methylates miRNA/miRNA* duplexes in vitro. In this study, we show that HEN1 methylates both(More)