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PREMISE OF THE STUDY Calocedrus is among the genera with a typical eastern Asian-western North American disjunct distribution today. The origin of its modern distribution pattern can be better understood by examining its fossil record. METHODS The present article reports for the first time a new fossil species of this genus based on compressed material(More)
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks Λ-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the(More)
The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination(More)
The purpose of this paper was to explore the utility of an electronic nose to detect the quality of litchi fruit stored in different environments. In this study, a PEN3 electronic nose was adopted to test the storage time and hardness of litchi that were stored in three different types of environment (room temperature, refrigerator and(More)
The purpose of this research is to explore the feasibility of applying an electronic nose for the intelligent monitoring of injurious insects in a stored grain environment. In this study, we employed an electronic nose to sample rough rice that contained three degrees of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) infestation for different durations-light(More)
The living fossil Ginkgo, a relict of a once dominant gymnosperm, existed and flourished early in the Mesozoic, but only a vague outline of its evolutionary history in the Tertiary has been unveiled. Here we describe a new species, Ginkgo jiayinensis sp. nov., from the Wuyun Formation of Jiayin, China, which is another well-established Tertiary species(More)
Path preview is the key to realizing automatic navigation control that can guide the navigational direction of the vehicle trace. The preview point must be regulated dynamically according to the predetermined navigational features of the actual path preview control to obtain the ideal path trace result. Based on the “preview follower theory” combined with(More)