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The Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion effector protein SifA is essential for inducing tubulation of the Salmonella phagosome and binds the mammalian kinesin-binding protein SKIP. Coexpression of SifA with the effector SseJ induced tubulation of mammalian cell endosomes, similar to that induced by Salmonella infection. Interestingly, GTP-bound RhoA,(More)
The Escherichia coli type III effector Map belongs to a large family of bacterial virulence factors that activate host Rho GTPase signaling pathways through an unknown molecular mechanism. Here we report direct evidence that Map functions as a potent and selective guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42. The 2.3-A structure of the Map-Cdc42(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protein Vif has a central role in the neutralization of host innate defences by hijacking cellular proteasomal degradation pathways to subvert the antiviral activity of host restriction factors; however, the underlying mechanism by which Vif achieves this remains unclear. Here we report a crystal structure of the(More)
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) proteins oligomerize into multiprotein complexes termed inflammasomes when activated. Their autoinhibition mechanism remains poorly defined. Here, we report the crystal structure of mouse NLRC4 in a closed form. The adenosine diphosphate-mediated interaction between the central(More)
Craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) are the most frequently occurring human congenital disease, and a major cause of infant mortality and childhood morbidity. Although CFAs seems to arise from a combination of genetic factors and environmental influences, the underlying gene defects and pathophysiological mechanisms for most CFAs are currently unknown. Here we(More)
The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial disease. It secretes a protease known as chlamydial protease/proteasome-like activity factor (CPAF) that degrades many host molecules and plays a major role in Chlamydia pathogenesis. Here, we show that mature CPAF is a homodimer of the(More)
The exact molecular mechanisms by which the environmental pollutant arsenic works in biological systems are not completely understood. Using an unbiased chemogenomics approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that mutants of the chaperonin complex TRiC and the functionally related prefoldin complex are all hypersensitive to arsenic compared to a(More)
Previous studies revealed that low calcium intake is related to high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. However, the relationship between serum calcium and blood pressure was unclear. The prevalence of hypertension is high in China. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the serum calcium level between hypertensive and(More)
The CRISPR-Cas systems, as exemplified by CRISPR-Cas9, are RNA-guided adaptive immune systems used by bacteria and archaea to defend against viral infection. The CRISPR-Cpf1 system, a new class 2 CRISPR-Cas system, mediates robust DNA interference in human cells. Although functionally conserved, Cpf1 and Cas9 differ in many aspects including their guide(More)