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Chromium occurs mostly in tri- and hexavalent states in the environment. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are extensively used in diverse industries, and trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] salts are used as micronutrients and dietary supplements. In the present work, we report that they both induce genetic mutations in yeast cells. They both also cause DNA(More)
Craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) are the most frequently occurring human congenital disease, and a major cause of infant mortality and childhood morbidity. Although CFAs seems to arise from a combination of genetic factors and environmental influences, the underlying gene defects and pathophysiological mechanisms for most CFAs are currently unknown. Here we(More)
a continuous wave (cw) He±Cd laser (325 nm) with an output power of 20 mW was used as the excitation source. The PL was dispersed through a SPEX Triax 500 spectrometer with a 600 lines/mm grating and was detected by a nitrogen-cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The development of surfaces that have switchable properties offers a new dimension in the(More)
Chromium is a significant mutagen and carcinogen in environment. We compared the effects of tri- and hexavalent chromium on cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in yeast. Cell growth was inhibited by Cr3+ or Cr6+, and Cr6+ significantly increased the lethal rate compared with Cr3+. Both Cr3+ and Cr6+ can enter into the yeast cells. The percent of propidium(More)
We report the implementation of a unique integrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy imaging technique developed for label-free monitoring of the progression of liver steatosis and fibrosis generated in a bile duct ligation (BDL) rat model. Among the 21(More)
Toona sinensis and Moschus are two herb materials used in traditional Chinese medicine, most commonly for their various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of three decoctions from Toona sinensis, Moschus, and Toona sinensis and Moschus in combination on cell growth in several normal and cancer cell lines by cell(More)
In this study, we present a fiber-optic ball lens Raman probe design for improving depth-selected Raman measurements of epithelial tissue. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that tissue Raman collection efficiency can be improved by properly selecting the refractive index and the diameter of the ball lens for the Raman probe design and the(More)
We propose a unique annular aperture detection scheme in radially polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering ͑RP-CARS͒ microscopy for significantly removing nonresonant background for high contrast vibrational imaging. Our finite-difference time-domain calculations show that the maximum radiation patterns of RP-CARS signals from the scatterers vary(More)