Zhiwei Huang

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Sister chromatid cohesion is normally established in S phase in a process that depends on the cohesion establishment factor Eco1, a conserved acetyltransferase. However, due to the lack of known in vivo substrates, how Eco1 regulates cohesion is not understood. Here we report that yeast Eco1 and its human ortholog, ESCO1, both acetylate Smc3, a component of(More)
The Escherichia coli type III effector Map belongs to a large family of bacterial virulence factors that activate host Rho GTPase signaling pathways through an unknown molecular mechanism. Here we report direct evidence that Map functions as a potent and selective guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42. The 2.3-A structure of the Map-Cdc42(More)
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) proteins oligomerize into multiprotein complexes termed inflammasomes when activated. Their autoinhibition mechanism remains poorly defined. Here, we report the crystal structure of mouse NLRC4 in a closed form. The adenosine diphosphate-mediated interaction between the central(More)
The CRISPR-Cas systems, as exemplified by CRISPR-Cas9, are RNA-guided adaptive immune systems used by bacteria and archaea to defend against viral infection. The CRISPR-Cpf1 system, a new class 2 CRISPR-Cas system, mediates robust DNA interference in human cells. Although functionally conserved, Cpf1 and Cas9 differ in many aspects including their guide(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protein Vif has a central role in the neutralization of host innate defences by hijacking cellular proteasomal degradation pathways to subvert the antiviral activity of host restriction factors; however, the underlying mechanism by which Vif achieves this remains unclear. Here we report a crystal structure of the(More)
The Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion effector protein SifA is essential for inducing tubulation of the Salmonella phagosome and binds the mammalian kinesin-binding protein SKIP. Coexpression of SifA with the effector SseJ induced tubulation of mammalian cell endosomes, similar to that induced by Salmonella infection. Interestingly, GTP-bound RhoA,(More)
Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique capable of optically probing the biomolecular changes associated with neoplastic transformation. The purpose of this study was to apply near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy in the high wavenumber (HW) region (2800-3700 cm(-1)) for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia. A rapid-acquisition NIR(More)
The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial disease. It secretes a protease known as chlamydial protease/proteasome-like activity factor (CPAF) that degrades many host molecules and plays a major role in Chlamydia pathogenesis. Here, we show that mature CPAF is a homodimer of the(More)
We successfully acquire the in vivo Raman spectrum of melanin from human skin using a rapid near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectrometer. The Raman signals of in vivo cutaneous melanin are similar to those observed from natural and synthetic eumelanins. The melanin Raman spectrum is dominated by two intense and broad peaks at about 1580 and 1380 cm(-1), which can(More)
CRISPR-Cas9 systems are bacterial adaptive immune systems that defend against infection by phages. Through the RNA-guided endonuclease activity of Cas9 they degrade double-stranded DNA with a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and sequences complementary to the guide RNA. Recently, two anti-CRISPR proteins (AcrIIA2 and AcrIIA4 from Listeria monocytogenes(More)