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The repair of DNA single-strand breaks in mammalian cells is mediated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), DNA ligase IIIalpha, and XRCC1. Since these proteins are not found in lower eukaryotes, this DNA repair pathway plays a unique role in maintaining genome stability in more complex organisms. XRCC1 not only forms a stable complex with DNA ligase(More)
Ipilimumab, an antibody that blocks CTL antigen 4 (CTLA-4), improves overall survival (OS) for patients with metastatic melanoma. Given its role in angiogenesis and immune evasion, serum VEGF levels were evaluated for association with clinical benefit in ipilimumab-treated patients. Sera were collected from 176 patients treated at 3 (n = 98) or 10 mg/kg (n(More)
BACKGROUND Ipilimumab improves overall survival in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma. Peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity has been associated with favorable outcomes in patients with cancer, but its relevance as a biomarker for ipilimumab outcomes remains unknown. FINDINGS In this pilot study, we analyzed the(More)
Ionizing radiation (IR) induces a DNA damage response that includes activation of cell cycle checkpoints, leading to cell cycle arrest. In addition, IR enhances cell invasiveness of glioblastoma cells, among other tumor cell types. Using RNA interference, we found that the protein kinase MRK, previously implicated in the DNA damage response to IR, also(More)
The small GTPase RhoC is overexpressed in many invasive tumors and is essential for metastasis. Despite its high structural homology to RhoA, RhoC appears to perform functions that are different from those controlled by RhoA. The identity of the signaling components that are differentially regulated by these two GTPases is only beginning to emerge. Here, we(More)
PURPOSE To assess the safety and tolerability of preoperative cryoablation-mediated tumor antigen presentation and/or ipilimumab-mediated immune modulation in women with operable breast cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN In this pilot study, 19 women with breast cancer for whom mastectomy was planned were treated with preoperative tumor cryoablation (n = 7),(More)
In early-stage breast cancer, the degree of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) predicts response to chemotherapy and overall survival. Combination immunotherapy with immune checkpoint antibody plus tumor cryoablation can induce lymphocytic infiltrates and improve survival in mice. We used T-cell receptor (TCR) DNA sequencing to evaluate both the effect of(More)
Among the three mammalian genes encoding DNA ligases, only the LIG3 gene does not have a homolog in lower eukaryotes. In somatic mammalian cells, the nuclear form of DNA ligase IIIalpha forms a stable complex with the DNA repair protein XRCC1 that is also found only in higher eukaryotes. Recent studies have shown that XRCC1 participates in S phase-specific(More)
Ipilimumab, an antibody that blocks cytotoxic T lympho-cyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), had shown improved overall survival (OS) for patients with metastatic melanoma. However predictive biomarkers for clinical benefit have not been well defined. We aimed to evaluate serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its association with clinical benefit and OS(More)