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Microarrays have emerged as the premier tool for studying gene expression on a genomic scale. Advances in the precision of array printers and scanners as well as improved laboratory protocols (11) allow for assays of tremendous complexity and scope. Scientists seeking to harness the potential of this technique are often challenged by the large quantities of(More)
  • J Conner, Z Liu
  • 2000
Regulation of homeotic gene expression is critical for proper developmental patterns in both animals and plants. LEUNIG is a key regulator of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS. Mutations in LEUNIG cause ectopic AGAMOUS mRNA expression in the outer two whorls of a flower, leading to homeotic transformations of floral organ identity as well as loss(More)
The death domain kinase RIP and the TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) are essential effectors in TNF signaling. To understand the mechanism by which RIP and TRAF2 regulate TNF-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, we investigated their respective roles in TNF-R1-mediated IKK activation using both RIP-/- and TRAF2-/- fibroblasts.(More)
Haplo-insufficiency of human Lis1 causes lissencephaly. Reduced Lis1 activity in both humans and mice results in a neuronal migration defect. Here we show that Drosophila Lis1 is highly expressed in the nervous system. Lis1 is essential for neuroblast proliferation and axonal transport, as shown by a mosaic analysis using a Lis1 null mutation. Moreover, it(More)
The inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs) regulate programmed cell death by inhibiting members of the caspase family of enzymes. Recently, a mammalian protein called Smac (also named DIABLO) was identified that binds to the IAPs and promotes caspase activation. Although undefined in the X-ray structure, the amino-terminal residues of Smac are critical for(More)
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion during neurite outgrowth, leukocyte homing, and tumor metastasis. In the current study, we examined the regulation of this molecule 4 days after neural trauma in different forms of central and peripheral injury. Transection of the hypoglossal, vagus, or sciatic nerve led to the appearance of(More)
Net type net blotch (NTNB), caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres Drechs., is prevalent in barley growing regions worldwide. A population of 118 doubled haploid (DH) lines developed from a cross between barley cultivars 'Rika' and 'Kombar' were used to evaluate resistance to NTNB due to their differential reaction to various isolates of P. teres f. teres.(More)
L6 myoblasts stably transfected with a GLUT4 cDNA harboring an exofacial myc epitope tag (L6-GLUT4myc myoblasts) were used to study the role of protein kinase B alpha (PKBalpha)/Akt1 in the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Surface GLUT4myc was detected by immunofluorescent labeling of the myc epitope in nonpermeabilized cells.(More)
The midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) junction has the properties of an organizer that patterns the MHB region early in vertebrate development. Fgf8 is thought to mediate this organizer function. In addition to Fgf8, Fgf17 and Fgf18 are also expressed in the MHB junction. Fgf17 is expressed later and broader than either Fgf8 or Fgf18. Disrupting the Fgf17 gene in(More)
Theileria luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi are newly identified Theileria species highly pathogenic for sheep and goats in China. As they are morphologically indistinguishable and poorly characterized, there is no easily applicable method available to differentiate between these species. In the present study, PCR assays are described for the differentiation and(More)