Few-layer graphene (FLG) has been predicted to exist in various crystallographic stacking sequences, which can strongly influence the material's electronic properties. We demonstrate an accurate and efficient method to characterize stacking order in FLG using the distinctive features of the Raman 2D-mode. Raman imaging allows us to visualize directly the… (More)
Engineered nanomaterials may be released to the environment and adversely affect the microbial community. Three generalized modes of interaction between NPs and bacteria that lead to observed toxicity are commonly described: physical contact between nanoparticles and cells (Type I), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Type II), and release of toxic… (More)
A copper-catalyzed domino reaction between itaconate esters and diethyl zinc (or silane) is developed, affording itaconate dimerization products, multi-ester-substituted cyclopentanones, in moderate to high yields.