Zhiqiang Chen

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Nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN), originally manufactured by Alfred Nobel, has been used to treat angina and heart failure for over 130 years. However, the molecular mechanism of GTN biotransformation has remained a mystery and it is not well understood why "tolerance" (i.e., loss of clinical efficacy) manifests over time. Here we purify a nitrate(More)
The identity of the cellular mechanisms through which nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) elicits nitric oxide (NO)-based signaling to dilate blood vessels remains one of the longest standing foci of investigation and sources of controversy in cardiovascular biology. Recent evidence suggests an unexpected role for mitochondria. We show here that(More)
BACKGROUND After a massive syphilis epidemic in the first half of the 20th century, China was able to eliminate this infection for 20 years (1960-80). However, substantial changes in Chinese society have been followed by a resurgent epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases. Sporadic reports have provided clues to the magnitude of the spread of syphilis,(More)
Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) plays a central role in the process of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) biotransformation in vivo and that its inhibition accounts for mechanism-based tolerance in vitro. The extent to which ALDH-2 contributes to GTN tolerance (impaired relaxation to GTN) and cross-tolerance(More)
The mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, mtALDH) was recently found to catalyze the reduction of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate [GTN]) to generate nitrite and 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate. The nitrite generated within the mitochondria is metabolized further to generate nitric oxide (NO)-based bioactivity, by reduction to NO and/or by conversion to(More)
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step for cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) regulates the EMT and the metastasis suppressor gene, N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), could play a role in regulating the TGF-β pathway. NDRG1 expression is markedly increased after chelator-mediated(More)
Most of the proposed E-cash systems require that the shop and customer belong to the same bank, which becomes the bottle-neck of E-cashpsilas wide application. Fangguo Zhang et al. proposed a model of electronic cash using multi-banks, but a trusted third party is needed in their system. To solve this problem, we propose a new electronic cash scheme based(More)
We report a robust regulation of surface AMPA receptors in mouse auditory neurons, both with application of glutamate receptor agonists in cultured neurons and in response to acoustic stimulation in vivo. The reversible reduction of surface AMPA receptors following acoustic stimulation correlated with changes in acoustic sensitivity. Thus we show that AMPA(More)
The rRNA N-glycosidase activities of the catalytically active A chains of the heterodimeric ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) ricin and abrin, the single-chain RIPs dianthin 30, dianthin 32, and the leaf and seed forms of pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) were assayed on E. coli ribosomes. All of the single-chain RIPs were active on E. coli ribosomes as(More)
In the cochlea, afferent transmission between inner hair cells and auditory neurons is mediated by glutamate receptors. Glutamate transporters located near the synapse and in spiral ganglion neurons are thought to maintain low synaptic levels of glutamate. We analyzed three glutamate transporter blockers for their ability to alter the effects of glutamate,(More)