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The persistent tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium current, detected in neurons of many regions of mammalian brains, is associated with many essential neuronal activities, including boosting of excitatory synaptic inputs, acceleration of firing rates, and promotion of oscillatory neuronal activities. However, the origin and molecular basis of the persistent(More)
Extensive alternative splicing and RNA editing have been documented for the transcript of DmNa(V) (formerly para), the sole sodium channel gene in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the functional consequences of these post-transcriptional modifications are not well understood. In this study we isolated 64 full-length DmNa(V) cDNA clones from D. melanogaster(More)
BSC1, which was originally identified by its sequence similarity to voltage-gated Na(+) channels, encodes a functional voltage-gated cation channel whose properties differ significantly from Na(+) channels. BSC1 has slower kinetics of activation and inactivation than Na(+) channels, it is more selective for Ba(2+) than for Na(+), it is blocked by Cd(2+),(More)
About five to four million years ago, in the early Pliocene epoch, Earth had a warm, temperate climate. The gradual cooling that followed led to the establishment of modern temperature patterns, possibly in response to a decrease in atmospheric CO2 concentration, of the order of 100 parts per million, towards preindustrial values. Here we synthesize the(More)
Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian(More)
Drosophila Sodium Channel 1 (DSC1) was predicted to encode a sodium channel based on a high sequence similarity with vertebrate and invertebrate sodium channel genes. However, BSC1, a DSC1 ortholog in Blattella germanica, was recently shown to encode a cation channel with ion selectivity toward Ca(2+). In this study, we isolated a total of 20 full-length(More)
Scorpion β-toxins bind to the extracellular regions of the voltage-sensing module of domain II and to the pore module of domain III in voltage-gated sodium channels and enhance channel activation by trapping and stabilizing the voltage sensor of domain II in its activated state. We investigated the interaction of a highly potent insect-selective scorpion(More)
Sodium channels play an essential role in generating the action potential in eukaryotic cells, and their transcripts, especially those in insects, undergo extensive A-to-I RNA editing. The functional consequences of RNA editing of sodium channel transcripts, however, have yet to be determined. We characterized 20 splice variants of the German cockroach(More)
The voltage-gated sodium channel is the primary target site of pyrethroids, which constitute a major class of insecticides used worldwide. Pyrethroids prolong the opening of sodium channels by inhibiting deactivation and inactivation. Despite numerous attempts to characterize pyrethroid binding to sodium channels in the past several decades, the molecular(More)
Indoxacarb (DPX-JW062) was recently developed as a new oxadiazine insecticide with high insecticidal activity and low mammalian toxicity. Previous studies showed that indoxacarb and its bioactive metabolite, N-decarbomethoxyllated JW062 (DCJW), block insect sodium channels in nerve preparations and isolated neurons. However, the molecular mechanism of(More)