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Silk features exceptional mechanical properties such as high tensile strength and great extensibility, making it one of the toughest materials known. The exceptional strength of silkworm and spider silks, exceeding that of steel, arises from beta-sheet nanocrystals that universally consist of highly conserved poly-(Gly-Ala) and poly-Ala domains. This is(More)
Carbon nanotubes are superior materials for thermal management and phononic device use due to their extremely high thermal conductivity and unique one-dimensional geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of the effects of mechanical tensile, compressive and torsional strain on the thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes using(More)
Carbon nanotubes are superb materials for nanoscale thermal management and phononic devices applications, due to their extremely high thermal conductivity (3000-6600 W/mK) and quasi-one-dimensional geometry. However, the presence of interfaces between individual carbon nanotubes as found widely in nanocomposites, nanoelectronics, and nanodevices severely(More)
The fracture of polycrystalline graphene is explored by performing molecular dynamics simulations with realistic finite-grain-size models, emphasizing the role of grain boundary ends and junctions. The simulations reveal a ~50% or more strength reduction due to the presence of the network of boundaries between polygonal grains, with cracks preferentially(More)
Resistance evolution in target insects to Bacillus thurningiensis (Bt) cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is a main threat to Bt cotton technology. An increasing trend of population density of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been observed since 2001 in Qiuxian County (Hebei, China), where Bt cotton has been planted dominantly since(More)
BACKGROUND In an effort to control the most devastating cotton pest, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), in Qiuxian County (Hebei, China), Bt cotton has been planted almost exclusively since 1998 in this area. Owing to the high insecticidal selection pressures in this region, monitoring of Bt resistance in H. armigera is necessary so that proactive actions can(More)
BACKGROUND Evolution of resistance threatens the continued success of transgenic crops expressing insecticidal proteins. One of the key factors for successful resistance management is the timely implementation of monitoring programmes to detect early changes of resistance allele frequency in field populations. F(1)/F(2) screen, dose-response bioassays and(More)
Nowadays we are living in the information age with the fast development of computational technologies and modern facilities. Larger data sets are produced by experiments and computer simulations. In contrast to conventional scientific approaches where simple models are built to fit the data, automated procedures are urged to obtain insights into the core(More)
The selective ion penetration and water purification properties of freestanding graphene oxide (GO) membranes are demonstrated. Sodium salts permeated through GO membranes quickly, whereas heavy-metal salts infiltrated much more slowly. Interestingly, copper salts were entirely blocked by GO membranes, and organic contaminants also did not infiltrate. The(More)