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A prominent feature of late-onset neurodegenerative diseases is accumulation of misfolded protein in vulnerable neurons. When levels of misfolded protein overwhelm degradative pathways, the result is cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration. Cellular mechanisms for degrading misfolded protein include the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the main(More)
The 104 kDa irreC-rst protein, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, mediates homophilic adhesion in cell cultures. In larval optic chiasms, the protein is found on recently formed axon bundles, not on older ones. In developing visual neuropils, it is present in all columnar domains of specific layers. The number of irreC-rst-positive neuropil(More)
Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR). This mutation confers toxic function to AR through unknown mechanisms. Mutant AR toxicity requires binding of its hormone ligand, suggesting that pathogenesis involves ligand-induced changes in AR. However, whether(More)
Variola virus, the most virulent member of the genus Orthopoxvirus, specifically infects humans and has no other animal reservoir. Variola causes the contagious disease smallpox, which has a 30-40% mortality rate. Conversely, the prototype orthopoxvirus, vaccinia, causes no disease in immunocompetent humans and was used in the global eradication of(More)
Cysteine-string proteins (CSPs) are associated with secretory vesicles and critical for regulated neurotransmitter release and peptide exocytosis. At nerve terminals, CSPs have been implicated in the mediation of neurotransmitter exocytosis by modulating presynaptic calcium channels; however, studies of CSPs in peptidergic secretion suggest a direct role in(More)
Regulation of synaptic strength is essential for neuronal information processing, but the molecular mechanisms that control changes in neuroexocytosis are only partially known. Here we show that the putative G protein-coupled receptor Methuselah (Mth) is required in the presynaptic motor neuron to acutely upregulate neurotransmitter exocytosis at larval(More)
The synaptic vesicle-associated cysteine-string protein (CSP) is important for synaptic transmission. Previous studies revealed multiple defects at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of csp null-mutant Drosophila, but whether these defects are independent of each other or mechanistically linked through J domain mediated-interactions with heat-shock cognate(More)
Recent molecular genetics studies have suggested various trans-synaptic processes for pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Examination of pre- and post-synaptic scaffolds in the brains of patients would greatly aid further investigation, yet such an approach in human postmortem tissue has yet to be tested. We have examined three(More)
The concept that the structure of the ribosome determines its function is simple. In practice, linking the two is not. Toward this general goal, we have undertaken an integrated approach employing the methods of molecular genetics, biochemistry, structural biology and molecular modeling in the model eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisae. Both(More)
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