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Cyclin D1 encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein and promotes progression through the G1-S phase of the cell cycle. Amplification or overexpression of cyclin D1 plays pivotal roles in the development of a subset of human cancers including parathyroid adenoma, breast cancer, colon cancer,(More)
BACKGROUND Higher fat mass may be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine the independent contribution of fat mass to osteoporosis and to estimate the risk of osteoporotic fractures in relation to body weight, lean mass, and other confounders. DESIGN This was a community-based,(More)
Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in human tumors, correlating with cellular metastasis, and is induced by activating Rho GTPases. Herein, cyclin D1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibited increased adhesion and decreased motility compared with wild-type MEFs. Retroviral transduction of cyclin D1 reversed these phenotypes. Mutational analysis of cyclin(More)
The cyclin D1 gene encodes the labile serum-inducible regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein. Overexpression of cyclin D1 promotes cellular proliferation and normal physiological levels of cyclin D1 function to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in vivo. We have previously shown that cyclin D1(More)
Ob/ob mice, a model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), develop intestinal bacterial overgrowth and overexpress tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In animal models for alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), decontaminating the intestine or inhibiting TNF-alpha improves AFLD. Because AFLD and NAFLD may have a similar pathogenesis, treatment(More)
In order to assess the contribution of polymorphisms in the RANKL (TNFSF11), RANK (TNFRSF11A) and OPG (TNFRSF11B) genes to variations in bone mineral density (BMD), a population-based cohort with 1,120 extreme low hip BMD cases or extreme high hip BMD controls was genotyped on five SNPs. We further explored the associations between these genetic variations(More)
Dietary factors promote obesity and obesity-related disorders, such as fatty liver disease. Natural killer T (NKT) cells are components of the innate immune system that regulate proinflammatory (Th-1) and anti-inflammatory (Th-2) immune responses. Previously, we noted that NKT cells are selectively reduced in the fatty livers of obese, leptin-deficient(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Dietary factors and intestinal bacteria play an important role in the rapidly increasing incidence of obesity and its associated conditions, such as steatosis and insulin resistance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of probiotics, and their mechanisms on diet-induced obesity, steatosis and insulin resistance. METHODS Wild-type(More)
Recovery from liver damage might be enhanced by encouraging repopulation of the liver by endogenous hepatic progenitor cells. Oval cells are resident hepatic stem cells that promote liver regeneration and repair. Little is known about the mediators that regulate the accumulation of these cells in the liver. Parasympathetic nervous system inhibition reduces(More)
UNLABELLED Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) presents significant diagnostic challenges, resulting in late patient diagnosis and poor survival rates. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients pose a particularly difficult clinical dilemma because they harbor chronic biliary strictures that are difficult to distinguish from CCA. MicroRNAs (miRs) have recently(More)