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In pure mobile ad hoc networks, trust based routing protocol is much more efficient at coping with the dynamic topology, open network environments and works well at identifying malicious behaviors. A number of trust routing protocols proposed restrict at standard routing protocols, therefore, lack accuracy in routing selection and rationality at trust(More)
— A Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) is a self-organized system comprised of mobile wireless nodes with peer relationships. Due to multi-hop routing and absence of any trusted third party in open environment, MANETs are vulnerable to attacks by malicious nodes. In order to decrease the hazards from malicious nodes, we introduce the concept of trust to MANETs(More)
The effect of acidification and heat treatment of raw red mud (RM) and fly ash (FA) on the sorption of phosphate was studied in parallel experiments. The result shows that a higher efficiency of phosphate removal was acquired by the activated samples than by the raw ones. The sample prepared by using the RM stirred with 0.25 M HCl for 2h (RM0.25), as well(More)
Many stream-based applications have real-time performance requirements for continuous queries over time varying data streams. In order to address this challenge, a real-time continuous query model is presented to process multiple queries with timing constraints. In this model, the execution of one tuple passing through an operator path is modeled as a(More)
Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) is one of the techniques used to obtain energy-saving in real-time DSP systems. In many DSP systems, some tasks contain conditional instructions that have different execution times for different inputs. Due to the uncertainties in execution time of these tasks, this paper models each varied execution time as a probabilistic(More)
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organized system comprised by multiple mobile wireless nodes. Due to the openness in network topology and the absence of centralized administration in management, MANET is vulnerable to attacks from malicious nodes. In order to reduce the hazards from these malicious nodes, we incorporate the concept of trust into(More)