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Due to the limited transmission range, data sensed by each sensor has to be forwarded in a multi-hop fashion before being delivered to the sink. The sensors closer to the sink have to forward comparatively more messages than sensors at the periphery of the network,and will deplete their batteries earlier. Besides the loss of the sensing capabilities of the(More)
Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) is one of the techniques used to obtain energy-saving in real-time DSP systems. In many DSP systems, some tasks contain conditional instructions that have different execution times for different inputs. Due to the uncertainties in execution time of these tasks, this paper models each varied execution time as a probabilistic(More)
— A Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) is a self-organized system comprised of mobile wireless nodes with peer relationships. Due to multi-hop routing and absence of any trusted third party in open environment, MANETs are vulnerable to attacks by malicious nodes. In order to decrease the hazards from malicious nodes, we introduce the concept of trust to MANETs(More)
—As a kind of typical embedded system, MANET is a multi-hop self-configuring network with the topology changes dynamically. To model of the security, mobility, and dynamic changes of MANET, trust is used as a novel concept recently. In this paper, based on the classic fuzzy theory, the trust evaluation and the dynamic routing protocols for MANET are(More)
ü A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organized system comprised by multiple mobile wireless nodes. Due to the openness in network topology and the absence of centralized administration in management, MANET is vulnerable to attacks from malicious nodes. In order to reduce the hazards from these malicious nodes, we incorporate the concept of trust into(More)
Multiple memory banks design is employed in many high performance DSP processors. This architectural feature supports higher memory bandwidth by allowing multiple data memory access to be executed in parallel. Dedicated address generation units (AGUs) are commonly presented in DSPs to perform address arithmetic in parallel to the main datapath. Address(More)
In real-time embedded systems, such as multimedia and video applications, cost and time are the most important issues and loop is the most critical part. Due to the uncertainties in execution time of some tasks, this paper models each varied execution time as a probabilistic random variable. We proposes a novel algorithm to minimize the total cost while(More)