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YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a transcription co-activator in the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway and controls cell growth, tissue homeostasis and organ size. YAP is inhibited by the kinase Lats, which phosphorylates YAP to induce its cytoplasmic localization and proteasomal degradation. YAP induces gene expression by binding to the TEAD family(More)
UNLABELLED MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by interacting with the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of multiple mRNAs. Recent studies have linked miRNAs to the development of cancer metastasis. In this study, we show that miR-194 is specifically expressed in the human gastrointestinal tract and kidney. Moreover,(More)
Growing evidence links tumor progression with chronic inflammatory processes and dysregulated activity of various immune cells. In this study, we demonstrate that various types of macrophages internalize microvesicles, called exosomes, secreted by breast cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. Although both types of exosomes targeted macrophages, only(More)
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4) is a member of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, which plays essential roles in metabolism of bile acids, lipid, and glucose. We previously showed spontaneously hepatocarcinogenesis in aged FXR(-/-) mice, but its relevance to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear.(More)
The Hippo pathway was initially identified in Drosophila melanogaster screens for tissue growth two decades ago and has been a subject extensively studied in both Drosophila and mammals in the last several years. The core of the Hippo pathway consists of a kinase cascade, transcription coactivators, and DNA-binding partners. Recent studies have expanded the(More)
GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid (BA) receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism. Here we show that without other external stimuli, TGR5 activation alone induced the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in murine(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Liver tumor, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is closely associated with chronic inflammation. We previously showed that farnesoid X receptor knockout (FXR(-)(/)(-)) mice displayed chronic inflammation and developed spontaneous liver tumors when they aged. However, the mechanism by which inflammation leads to HCC in the absence(More)
Liver repair is key to resuming homeostasis and preventing fibrogenesis as well as other liver diseases. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) is an emerging liver metabolic regulator and cell protector. Here we show that FXR is essential to promote liver repair after carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced injury. Expression of hepatic FXR in wild-type mice was(More)
The liver can fully regenerate itself by a compensatory regrowth in response to partial hepatectomy or injury. This process consists of a variety of well-orchestrated phases and is mediated by many signals. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Bile acids are FXR(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatocyte injury occurs during liver fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate some of these processes, and some are regulated by the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). We investigated the effect of repression of specific miRNAs by FXR in hepatocyte injury using fibrotic liver tissue from patients and hepatocytes. METHODS We used(More)