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YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a transcription co-activator in the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway and controls cell growth, tissue homeostasis and organ size. YAP is inhibited by the kinase Lats, which phosphorylates YAP to induce its cytoplasmic localization and proteasomal degradation. YAP induces gene expression by binding to the TEAD family(More)
Growing evidence links tumor progression with chronic inflammatory processes and dysregulated activity of various immune cells. In this study, we demonstrate that various types of macrophages internalize microvesicles, called exosomes, secreted by breast cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. Although both types of exosomes targeted macrophages, only(More)
The transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ are key regulators of organ size and tissue homeostasis, and their dysregulation contributes to human cancer. Here, we discover YAP/TAZ as bona fide downstream effectors of the alternative Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt5a/b and Wnt3a induce YAP/TAZ activation independent of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.(More)
The Hippo pathway plays a central role in tissue homoeostasis, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Core components of the Hippo pathway include a kinase cascade of MST1/2 and LATS1/2 and the transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ. In response to stimulation, LATS1/2 phosphorylate and inhibit YAP/TAZ, the main effectors of the Hippo pathway.(More)
TGR5, an emerging G protein-coupled receptor, was identified as a membrane receptor for bile acids. The expression of TGR5 and its function are distinct from the previously identified nuclear bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). These two bile acid receptors complement with each other for maintaining bile acid homeostasis and mediating bile acid(More)
GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid (BA) receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism. Here we show that without other external stimuli, TGR5 activation alone induced the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in murine(More)
As phospho-eIF4E (p-eIF4E), unlike total eIF4E (t-eIF4E) essential for normal cells, is specifically required by cancer cells, it is an attractive, yet unrealized, target for anti-tumor intervention. Here we identify a small molecule, homoharringtonine (HHT), that antagonizes p-eIF4E function and eradicates acute myeloid leukemia (AML) expressing high level(More)
Autophagy is a process for the turnover of intracellular organelles and molecules during stress responses. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding endogenous RNAs that may regulate almost every cellular process. However, the roles of miRNAs in autophagy are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that miR-26a enhances autophagy in both culture(More)
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