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Genetically engineered tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) with the ability to accumulate glycinebetaine was established. The wild type and transgenic plants were exposed to heat treatment (25–50°C) for 4 h in the dark and under growth light intensity (300 μmol m−2 s−1). The analyses of oxygen-evolving activity and chlorophyll fluorescence demonstrated that(More)
To investigate the possible mechanisms of glutathione reductase (GR) in protecting against oxidative stress, we obtained transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with 30–70% decreased GR activity by using a gene encoding tobacco chloroplastic GR for the RNAi construct. We investigated the responses of wild type and transgenic plants to oxidative stress(More)
Rubisco activase plays an important role in the regulation of CO(2) assimilation. However, it is unknown how activase regulates photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry. To investigate the effects of Rubisco activase on PSII photochemistry, we obtained transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with 50% (i7), 25% (i28), and 5% (i46) activase levels as(More)
Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) and participates in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which scavenges H2 O2 . Here, we report that chloroplastic/mitochondrial GR2 is an important regulator of leaf senescence. Seed development of the homozygous gr2 knockout mutant was blocked at(More)
Whole spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants were subjected to heat stress (25 degrees C-50 degrees C) in the dark for 30 min. At temperatures higher than 35 degrees C, CO2 assimilation rate decreased significantly. The maximal efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry remained unchanged until 45 degrees C and decreased only slightly at 50 degrees C.(More)
Iron superoxide dismutases (FeSODs) play an important role in preventing the oxidative damage associated with photosynthesis. To investigate the mechanisms of FeSOD in protection against photooxidative stress, we obtained transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with severely decreased FeSOD by using a gene encoding tobacco chloroplastic FeSOD for the(More)
To investigate the molecular mechanism of chloroplast biogenesis and development, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant (dg169, delayed greening 169) which showed growth retardation and delayed greening phenotype in leaves. Newly emerged chlorotic leaves recovered gradually with leaf development in the mutant, and the mature leaves showed similar phenotype(More)
Phytyl-diphosphate, which provides phytyl moieties as a common substrate in both tocopherol and phylloquinone biosynthesis, derives from de novo isoprenoid biosynthesis or a salvage pathway via phytol phosphorylation. However, very little is known about the role and origin of the phytyl moiety for phylloquinone biosynthesis. Since VTE6, a phytyl-phosphate(More)
To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a(More)
Elongation of carrot somatic embryo radicles was inhibited by sucrose at or above 5%(145 mM). This effect would not be released until the sucrose concentration was lowered again. Morphological and cytological studies as well as determination of ABA content and analysis of the expression mode of a Lea gene, all point to its similarity to natural dormancy and(More)
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