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OBJECTIVE Mechanisms underlying mucosal transmission of HIV-1 are incompletely understood. We describe the anti-HIV-1 activity of human beta-defensins (hBD), small cationic molecules that provide protection at mucosal surfaces. METHODS AND RESULTS HIV-1 induced expression of hBD-2 and -3 mRNA (but not that of hBD-1) 4- to 78-fold, respectively, above(More)
There is increasing evidence that innate and adaptive immune responses are intimately linked. This linkage is in part mediated through the recognition of conserved microbial products by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Detection of microbial products by TLRs can result in induction of inflammatory cytokines and activation of professional antigen-presenting(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a significant part of infiltrating inflammatory cells that are frequently correlated with progression and poor prognosis of a variety of cancers. Tumor cell-produced human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) has been associated with TAM trafficking in oral cancer; however, its involvement in tumor-related(More)
Previously, we showed that human epithelial cell-derived beta-defensins (hBD)-2 and -3 block HIV-1 replication via a direct interaction with virions and through modulation of the CXCR4 coreceptor on immunocompetent cells. In the present study, we show that hBD-3 promotes directly the internalization of CXCR4 yet does not induce calcium flux, ERK (ERK-1/2)(More)
Human β-defensin 3 (hBD-3) activates antigen-presenting cells through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1/2. Several TLR1/2 agonists have been identified but little is known about how they might differentially affect cellular activation. We compared the effects of hBD-3 with those of another TLR1/2 agonist, Pam(3) CSK(4) , in human monocytes. Monocytes incubated(More)
UNLABELLED Periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum produce five different short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as metabolic by-products. We detect significantly higher levels of SCFAs in the saliva of patients with severe periodontal disease. The different SCFAs stimulate lytic gene expression of Kaposi's(More)
BACKGROUND Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are epithelial cell-derived antimicrobial and immunoregulatory cationic peptides. Our objective was to establish an analytical tool to quantify inducible hBD-2 and -3 in body fluids. METHODS We developed sandwich ELISAs using commercially available capture and detection antibodies and determined optimal assay(More)
Production of human beta-defensin1 (HBD1) in response to LPS in monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) was examined. Since PDC make up only 0.1-0.5% of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell population, we developed a method to determine HBD1 peptide levels using four-color flow cytometry, which can examine several cell(More)