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A novel, simple, and compact optical fiber directional bending vector sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The device consists of a piece of seven-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) sandwiched between two single mode fibers (SMFs) with a lateral offset splicing joint that covering two cores of PCF.(More)
Methyl-tert-butyl (MTBE) is widely used in gasoline to reduce ozone and carbon monoxide emissions. However, it is highly water-soluble and does not absorb well to sediments, making it move quickly through groundwater systems. In addition, MTBE resists biological degradation, compared to other gasoline components, probably because of the high energy required(More)
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