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Endothelial dysfunction is involved in various cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to re-endothelialization and neo-vascularization, and the increase of EPCs in peripherial circulation benefits the prognosis of cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the biological stimuli that(More)
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a member of the TLR family that recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), plays an important role in antiviral immunity. TLR3 is widely expressed in various cells and the activation of TLR3 induces cell apoptosis in some cells. However, the effect of TLR3 on cell proliferation in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is unclear. In(More)
Extracellular ATP mediates a wide range of physiological effects, including cell proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and migration. However, the effect of ATP on cell proliferation has been contradictory, and the mechanism is not fully understood. In the current study, we found that extracellular ATP significantly inhibited the proliferation of(More)
Extracellular nucleotides mediate a wide range of physiological effects by interacting with plasma membrane P2 purinergic receptors. P2 receptors are expressed in certain kinds of stem cells, and function to induce cytokine expression and to modulate cell proliferation. We have analysed the expression and the function of P2 receptors in human umbilical cord(More)
Muramyldipeptide (MDP), the minimum essential structure responsible for the immuno-adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan, is recognized by intracellular nuclear-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2). Here, we obtained evidence that the treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) with MDP up-regulated the gene expression of type I interferons in a(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on the proliferation of co-cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS Mononuclear cells were isolated from fresh cord blood by 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and density gradient centrifugation. Isolated mononuclear cells were cultured in EGM-2 medium supplemented with(More)
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2)-induced signal transduction and cytokine production is regulated by a number of factors. However, the feedback effect of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α on NOD2-induced inflammation is not fully understood. In this study, we found unexpectedly that TNF-α up-regulated NOD2 ligand MDP-induced production(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 polymorphism in Han people from Hunan region and its association with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease.
 Methods: Sanger sequence and statistical analysis were performed to identify the polymorphism of TLR2 and TLR4 genes in 347 unrelated Hunan Han subjects, including 180 healthy people(More)
The phase separation behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]) was investigated by rheological, optical microscopy, FT-IR and DSC measurements. It is demonstrated that specific interactions, particularly the hydrogen bonding between PEO and the ionic liquids as evidenced by FT-IR, in(More)
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