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The genomes of six pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) isolated from symptomless pigeons in live poultry markets during the national active surveillance from 2011 to 2013 were sequenced and analyzed in this study. The complete genome lengths of all isolates were 15,192 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. All isolates had the same motif(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent APCs. Whereas immature DCs down-regulate T-cell responses to induce/maintain immunologic tolerance, mature DCs promote immunity. To amplify their functions, DCs communicate with neighboring DCs through soluble mediators, cell-to-cell contact, and vesicle exchange. Transfer of nanovesicles (< 100 nm) derived from the(More)
Under steady-state conditions, internalization of self-antigens embodied in apoptotic cells by dendritic cells (DCs) resident in peripheral tissue followed by DC migration and presentation of self-peptides to T cells in secondary lymphoid organs are key steps for induction and maintenance of peripheral T-cell tolerance. We show here that, besides this(More)
The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as(More)
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) plays a critical role in the Internet inter-domain routing reliability. Invalid routes generated by mis-configurations or forged by malicious attacks may hijack the traffic and devastate the Internet routing system, but it is unlikely that a secure BGP can be deployed in the near future to completely prevent them. Although many(More)
The de facto inter-domain routing protocol, Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), plays a critical role in the Internet routing reliability. Invalid routes generated by mis-configurations or malicious attacks will devastate the Internet routing system. In the near future, deploying a secure BGP in the Internet to completely prevent hijacking is impossible. As a(More)
Exosomes are nanovesicles released by leukocytes and epithelial cells. Although their function remains enigmatic, exosomes are a source of antigen and transfer functional major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I/peptide complexes to dendritic cells (DCs) for CD8(+) T-cell activation. Here we demonstrate that exosomes also are internalized and processed by(More)
Apoptosis resistance commonly occurs in cancers, preventing activation of Caspase family cell death proteases. XIAP is an endogenous inhibitor of Caspases overexpressed in many cancers. We developed an enzyme derepression assay, based on overcoming XIAP-mediated suppression of Caspase-3, and screened mixture-based combinatorial chemical libraries for(More)
This paper is concerned with the robust exponential synchronization problem of a class of chaotic delayed neural networks with different parametric uncertainties. A novel impulsive control scheme (so-called dual-stage impulsive control) is proposed. Based on the theory of impulsive functional differential equations, a global exponential synchronization(More)
Fourteen pigeon-origin Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates were obtained from sick pigeons in China between 1996 and 2005. The mean death time (MDT) of embryonated eggs and the intracerebral pathogenicity indices (ICPI) were tested to determine the virulence of the field isolates. The result indicated that most isolates were proved to be mesogenic (MDT(More)