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The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent APCs. Whereas immature DCs down-regulate T-cell responses to induce/maintain immunologic tolerance, mature DCs promote immunity. To amplify their functions, DCs communicate with neighboring DCs through soluble mediators, cell-to-cell contact, and vesicle exchange. Transfer of nanovesicles (< 100 nm) derived from the(More)
The genomes of six pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) isolated from symptomless pigeons in live poultry markets during the national active surveillance from 2011 to 2013 were sequenced and analyzed in this study. The complete genome lengths of all isolates were 15,192 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. All isolates had the same motif(More)
Eighty-three strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were obtained from outbreaks in chickens, pigeons, geese, and ducks in China in 2005 and characterized genotypically. The main functional region of the F gene (535 nucleotides) was amplified and sequenced. A phylogenetic tree based on nucleotides 47-435 of the F gene was created using sequences from 83(More)
Exosomes are nanovesicles released by leukocytes and epithelial cells. Although their function remains enigmatic, exosomes are a source of antigen and transfer functional major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I/peptide complexes to dendritic cells (DCs) for CD8(+) T-cell activation. Here we demonstrate that exosomes also are internalized and processed by(More)
Under steady-state conditions, internalization of self-antigens embodied in apoptotic cells by dendritic cells (DCs) resident in peripheral tissue followed by DC migration and presentation of self-peptides to T cells in secondary lymphoid organs are key steps for induction and maintenance of peripheral T-cell tolerance. We show here that, besides this(More)
Exosomes are nanovesicles released by different cell types including dendritic cells (DCs). The fact that exosomes express surface MHC-peptide complexes suggests that they could function as Ag-presenting vesicles or as vehicles to spread allogeneic Ags for priming of anti-donor T cells during elicitation of graft rejection or induction/maintenance of(More)
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) plays a critical role in the Internet inter-domain routing reliability. Invalid routes generated by mis-configurations or forged by malicious attacks may hijack the traffic and devastate the Internet routing system, but it is unlikely that a secure BGP can be deployed in the near future to completely prevent them. Although many(More)
The de facto inter-domain routing protocol, Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), plays a critical role in the Internet routing reliability. Invalid routes generated by mis-configurations or malicious attacks will devastate the Internet routing system. In the near future, deploying a secure BGP in the Internet to completely prevent hijacking is impossible. As a(More)
Fourteen pigeon-origin Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates were obtained from sick pigeons in China between 1996 and 2005. The mean death time (MDT) of embryonated eggs and the intracerebral pathogenicity indices (ICPI) were tested to determine the virulence of the field isolates. The result indicated that most isolates were proved to be mesogenic (MDT(More)