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We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome.(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Corn (Zea mays) responds to salt stress via changes in gene expression, metabolism and physiology. This adaptation is achieved through the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to act as key regulating factors of post-transcriptional gene expression.(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. We conducted a genome-wide survey of maize miRNA genes, characterizing their structure, expression, and evolution. Computational approaches based on homology and secondary structure modeling identified 150 high-confidence genes within(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Anaerobic or low oxygen conditions occur when maize plants are submerged or subjected to flooding of the soil. Maize survival under low oxygen conditions is largely dependent on metabolic, physiological and morphological adaptation strategies; the regulation mechanisms of which remain unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in(More)
Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that impact the health of humans and animals. Few studies have been carried out on Anaplasma infections in central and southern China. This study was conducted to determine the coinfection rates of Anaplasma ovis, A. bovis, and A. phagocytophilum from 262 field blood samples of goats in(More)
The experimental transmission of a recently designated Theileria uilenbergi pathogenic for sheep and goats in Northern China is described. Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis nymphs and adults developed from larvae and nymphs engorged on sheep infected with T. uilenbergi were able to respectively transmit the latter to sheep. However, when H. longicornis ticks(More)
Thymus seeding by T-lymphoid progenitor cells is a prerequisite for T-cell development. However, molecules guiding thymus colonization and their roles before and after thymus vascularization are unclear. Here we show that mice doubly deficient for chemokine receptors CCR7 and CCR9 were defective specifically in fetal thymus colonization before, but not(More)
Calculating protein-protein interaction energies is crucial for understanding protein-protein associations. On the basis of the methodology of mean-field potential, we have developed an empirical approach to estimate binding free energy for protein-protein interactions. This knowledge-based approach has been used to derive distance-dependent free energies(More)
Accurate identification of transcription factor binding sites is critical to our understanding of transcriptional regulatory networks. To overcome the issue of high false-positive predictions that trouble the sequence-based prediction techniques, we have developed a structure-based prediction method that takes into consideration of interactions between the(More)
Theileria sergenti and Theileria sinensis are closely related members of benign Theileria species found in cattle and yaks in China. They are morphologically indistinguishable. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting major piroplasm surface protein of T. sergenti and T. sinensis was developed in this study. The newly developed oligonucleotide primer set(More)