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Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Is a Cytosolic DNA Sensor That Activates the Type I Interferon Pathway
TLDR
Results indicate that cGAS is a cytosolic DNA sensor that induces interferons by producing the second messenger cGAMP, which belongs to the nucleotidyltransferase family.
TAK1 is a ubiquitin-dependent kinase of MKK and IKK
TLDR
The purification and identification of TRIKA2, which is composed of TAK1, TAB1 and TAB2, a protein kinase complex previously implicated in IKK activation through an unknown mechanism, indicate that ubiquitination has an important regulatory role in stress response pathways, including those of IKK and JNK.
TRIM25 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity
TLDR
It is demonstrated that TRIM25 E3 ubiquitin ligase induces the Lys 63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, which is crucial for the cytosolic Rig-I signalling pathway to elicit host antiviral innate immunity.
Phosphorylation of innate immune adaptor proteins MAVS, STING, and TRIF induces IRF3 activation
TLDR
A common signaling mechanism used by all three types of innate immune receptor-adaptor protein pairs to activate IRF3 and generate IFNs is reported, which is important because cells must regulate their IFN production carefully to avoid inflammation and autoimmunity.
STING Specifies IRF3 Phosphorylation by TBK1 in the Cytosolic DNA Signaling Pathway
TLDR
STING is shown to stimulate phosphorylation of IRF3 by the kinase TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1) in an in vitro reconstitution system, suggesting that STING functions as a scaffold protein to specify and promote the phosphorylated of IRf3 by TBk1.
Hepatitis C virus protease NS3/4A cleaves mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein off the mitochondria to evade innate immunity.
TLDR
An example of host-pathogen interaction in which the virus evades innate immunity by dislodging a pivotal antiviral protein from the mitochondria is provided and blocking the cleavage of MAVS by NS3/4A is suggested to be applied to the prevention and treatment of HCV.
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