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MEK/ERK signaling plays a crucial role in a diverse set of cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, and recently has been reported to negatively regulate mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) self-renewal by antagonizing STAT3 activity. However, its role in human ESCs (hESCs) remains unclear. Here we investigated the(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) have unlimited self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into most, if not all, possible cell types. This unique property makes them valuable not only for investigation of early developmental processes, but also for regenerative medicine. Mesoderm-derived cardiac cells and hematopoietic cells both have the potential(More)
The blast colony-forming cell (BL-CFC) was identified as an equivalent to the hemangioblast during in vitro embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of the BL-CFC remain largely unknown. Here we report the isolation of mouse lysocardiolipin acyltransferase (Lycat) based on homology to zebrafish(More)
The policy of jointly implementing signal control and congestion pricing in the transportation network is investigated. Bilevel programs are developed to model the simultaneous optimization of signal setting and congestion toll. The upper level aims to maximize the network reserve capacity or minimize the total travel time, subject to signal setting and(More)
A model is presented for analyzing Pareto-efficient build-operate-transfer toll road contracts. The formulation simultaneously allows maximizing social welfare and private profit when road users vary in their value-of-time (VOT). The failure rate and mean residual functions of the VOT distribution are used to characterize Pareto-efficient solutions. Service(More)
This paper studies the dynamics of the traveler’s day-to-day route adjustment process in the general transportation network with fixed or elastic demand and homogeneous or heterogeneous users. Each traveler is assumed to adjust his/her route choice according to the excess travel cost between the instantaneous experienced travel cost and a certain referred(More)
This paper studies the stability issues of the traveler's day-to-day route adjustment process in the general transportation network with fixed or elastic demand, homogeneous or heterogeneous users. Each traveler is assumed to adjust his/her route choice according to the excess travel cost between the instantaneous experienced travel cost and a certain(More)
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