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The olfactory system translates myriad chemical structures into diverse odour perceptions. To gain insight into how this is accomplished, we prepared mice that coexpressed a transneuronal tracer with only one of about 1,000 different odorant receptors. The tracer travelled from nasal neurons expressing that receptor to the olfactory bulb and then to the(More)
Pheromones can have profound effects on reproductive physiology and behavior in mammals. To investigate the neural circuits underlying these effects, we used a genetic transneuronal tracer to identify neurons that synapse with GnRH (LHRH) neurons, the key regulators of reproduction. We then asked whether the connected neurons are presynaptic or postsynaptic(More)
Marine molluscs, as is the case with most aquatic animals, rely heavily on olfactory cues for survival. In the mollusc Aplysia californica, mate-attraction is mediated by a blend of water-borne protein pheromones that are detected by sensory structures called rhinophores. The expression of G protein and phospholipase C signaling molecules in this organ is(More)
The green mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is the most prevalent crustacean on the southeast coast of China. The molecular regulatory mechanism of sex determination and gonadal differentiation in this species has received considerable attention in recent years because of the huge differences—both biological and economic—between male and female crabs. In this(More)
In the olfactory system, environmental chemicals are deconstructed into neural signals and then reconstructed to form odor perceptions. Much has been learned about odor coding in the olfactory epithelium and bulb, but little is known about how odors are subsequently encoded in the cortex to yield diverse perceptions. Here, we report that the representation(More)
The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) cDNA and its genome were cloned from small abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. Small abalone mif (samif) was originally identified from an expressed sequence tag (EST) fragment from a normalized cDNA library. It's 5' untranslated region (UTR) was obtained by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE)(More)
Interleukin receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1 binding protein 1 (IRAK1BP1) is a critical factor in preventing dangerous overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines by the innate immune system and in influencing the specificity of TLR responses. In this study, a first molluscan IRAK1BP1 gene, saIRAK1BP1, was cloned from the small abalone (Haliotis(More)
Mammal interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) have been demonstrated to play important functions in TLRs (Toll-like receptor) signal pathway and T cell proliferation, but there is less knowledge available on mollusc IRAKs. In this study, a molluscan IRAK-4 gene, saIRAK-4, was cloned for the first time from the small abalone (Haliotis(More)
The full-length (7816 bp) cDNA of Vitellogenin (Vtg) encoding 2560 aa with an estimated molecular mass of 287.743 kDa was cloned from the green mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Semi-quantitative PCR (sq-PCR) revealed a specific expression pattern of Sp-vtg gene in ovaries and hepatopancreas. With the development of ovaries, the expression level of Sp-vtg gene(More)