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Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are catabolized. During starvation, the protein TOR (target of rapamycin), a nutrient-responsive kinase, is inhibited, and this induces autophagy. In autophagy, double-membrane autophagosomes envelop and sequester intracellular components and then fuse with(More)
Oesophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 70% of global oesophageal cancer cases occur in China, with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) being the histopathological form in the vast majority of cases (>90%). Currently, there are limited clinical approaches for the(More)
The assumption that each enzyme expresses a single enzymatic activity in vivo is challenged by the linkage of the neuronal enzyme ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) to Parkinson's disease (PD). UCH-L1, especially those variants linked to higher susceptibility to PD, causes the accumulation of alpha-synuclein in cultured cells, an effect that cannot(More)
Mutations in alpha-synuclein and Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are linked to autosomal dominant forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about any potential pathophysiological interplay between these two PD-related genes. Here we show in transgenic mice that although overexpression of LRRK2 alone did not cause neurodegeneration,(More)
Hypoparathyroidism, mental retardation and facial dysmorphism (HRD) is a fatal developmental disease caused by mutations in tubulin-specific chaperone E (TBCE). A mouse Tbce mutation causes progressive motor neuronopathy. To dissect the functions of TBCE and the pathogenesis of HRD, we generated mutations in Drosophila tbce, and manipulated its expression(More)
Synaptic communication requires the controlled release of synaptic vesicles from presynaptic axon terminals. Release efficacy is regulated by the many proteins that comprise the presynaptic release apparatus, including Ca(2+) channels and proteins that influence Ca(2+) channel accumulation at release sites. Here we identify Drosophila RIM (Rab3 interacting(More)
LncRNA SPRY4-IT1 has been shown to promote the progression of melanoma. However, the role of lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical significance and biological functions of SPRY4-IT1 in ESCC. The expression levels of lncRNA SPRY4-IT in 92 ESCC patients and(More)
MOTIVATION With the rapid development of next-generation sequencing techniques, metagenomics, also known as environmental genomics, has emerged as an exciting research area that enables us to analyze the microbial environment in which we live. An important step for metagenomic data analysis is the identification and taxonomic characterization of DNA(More)
Chemically modified proteins are invaluable tools for studying the molecular details of biological processes, and they also hold great potential as new therapeutic agents. Several methods have been developed for the site-specific modification of proteins, one of the most widely used being expressed protein ligation (EPL) in which a recombinant α-thioester(More)