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This paper describes the fabrication and the performance of microfluidic paper-based electrochemical sensing devices (we call the microfluidic paper-based electrochemical devices, microPEDs). The microPEDs comprise paper-based microfluidic channels patterned by photolithography or wax printing, and electrodes screen-printed from conducting inks (e.g.,(More)
The combination of simple Electrochemical Micro-Paper-based Analytical Devices (EµPADs) with commercially available glucometers allows rapid, quantitative electrochemical analysis of a number of compounds relevant to human health (e.g., glucose, cholesterol, lactate, and alcohol) in blood or urine.
Just as nanoparticles display properties that differ from those of bulk samples of the same material, ensembles of nanoparticles can have collective properties that are different to those displayed by individual nanoparticles and bulk samples. Self-assembly has emerged as a powerful technique for controlling the structure and properties of ensembles of(More)
This paper describes three-dimensional microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (3-D microPADs) that can be programmed (postfabrication) by the user to generate multiple patterns of flow through them. These devices are programmed by pressing single-use 'on' buttons, using a stylus or a ballpoint pen. Pressing a button closes a small space (gap) between(More)
A multifunctional theranostic platform based on photosensitizer-loaded plasmonic vesicular assemblies of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is developed for effective cancer imaging and treatment. The gold vesicles (GVs) composed of a monolayer of assembled GNPs show strong absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) range of 650-800 nm, as a result of the plasmonic(More)
Current fundamental investigations of human biology and the development of therapeutic drugs commonly rely on 2D monolayer cell culture systems. However, 2D cell culture systems do not accurately recapitulate the structure, function or physiology of living tissues, nor the highly complex and dynamic 3D environments in vivo. Microfluidic technology can(More)
Organized arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles show electronic and optical properties that originate from the coupling of shape-dependent properties of the individual nanorods. The organization of nanorods in a controllable and predictable way provides a route to the fabrication of new materials and functional devices. So far, significant progress has been(More)
The hierarchical assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) allows the localized surface plasmon resonance peaks to be engineered to the near-infrared (NIR) region for enhanced photothermal therapy (PTT). Herein we report a novel theranostic platform based on biodegradable plasmonic gold nanovesicles for photoacoustic (PA) imaging and PTT. The disulfide bond at(More)
We report a microfluidic approach to generating capsules of biopolymer hydrogels. Droplets of an aqueous solution of a biopolymer were emulsified in an organic phase comprising a cross-linking agent. Polymer gelation was achieved in situ (on a microfluidic chip) by diffusion-controlled ionic cross-linking of the biopolymer, following the transfer of the(More)