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Primary cilia play a key role in the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The affected proteins, polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), interact with each other and are expressed in cilia. We found that COOH-terminal truncated PC2 (PC2-L703X), lacking the PC1 interaction region, still traffics to cilia. We examined PC2(More)
During kidney organogenesis, tubular epithelial cells proliferate until a functional tubule is formed as sensed by cilia bending in response to fluid flow. This flow-induced ciliary mechanosensation opens the calcium (Ca(2+)) channel polycystin-2 (PC2), resulting in a calcium flux-mediated cell cycle arrest. Loss or mutation of either PC2 or its regulatory(More)
Polycystin-2 (PC-2) is a non-selective cation channel that, when mutated, results in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In an effort to understand the regulation of this channel, we investigated the role of protein phosphorylation in PC-2 function. We demonstrated the direct incorporation of phosphate into PC-2 in cells and tissues and found that(More)
BACKGROUND Nephrolithiasis is a common disease with a high recurrence rate; however, calcium stone pathogenesis remains unknown because of complex multiple factors. Hypocitraturia induced by citrate transport disturbance is known to be involved in nephrolithiasis development. Sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter (NaDC) mediates citrate uptake from the renal(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that plays a critical role in cell motility. Movement and retraction of podocyte foot processes, which accompany podocyte injury, suggest focal adhesion disassembly. To understand better the mechanisms by which podocyte foot process effacement leads to proteinuria and kidney failure, we studied(More)
The type I AAA (ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities) ATPase Vps4 and its co-factor Vta1p/LIP5 function in membrane remodeling events that accompany cytokinesis, multivesicular body biogenesis, and retrovirus budding, apparently by driving disassembly and recycling of membrane-associated ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for(More)
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is required for innate immune responses against RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells MAVS forms prion-like aggregates to activate antiviral signaling cascades, but the underlying structural mechanism is unknown. Here we report cryo-electron microscopic structures of the helical filaments formed by both the(More)
Polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results from failure of the kidney to properly maintain three-dimensional structure after loss of either polycystin-1 or -2. Mice with kidney selective inactivation of Pkd1 during embryogenesis develop profound renal cystic disease and die from renal failure within 3 weeks of birth. In this model, cysts form exclusively(More)
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) can arise from either developmental or postdevelopmental processes. Recessive PKD, caused by mutations in PKHD1, is a developmental defect, whereas dominant PKD, caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2, occurs by a cellular recessive mechanism in mature kidneys. Oriented cell division is a feature of planar cell polarity that(More)
Electron cryotomography is the highest-resolution structural technique currently available that can be applied to unique objects such as flexible large protein complexes, irregular viruses, organelles and small cells. Specimens are preserved in a near-native, 'frozen-hydrated' state by vitrification. The thickness of the vitreous ice must be optimized for(More)