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We propose a novel salient region detection algorithm by texture-suppressed background contrast. We employ a structure extraction algorithm to suppress the small scale textures which are supposed to be not sensitive for human vision system. Then the texture-suppressed image is segmented into homogeneous superpixels. Motivated by the observation that the(More)
Ends-in and ends-out gene replacement approaches have been successfully used to disrupt Drosophila genes involved in a variety of biological processes. These methods combine double-strand breaks and homologous recombination to replace a targeted chromosome region with a designed DNA sequence. Unfortunately, these methods require large numbers of single(More)
Oral delivery of anticancer drugs remains challenging because of limited water-solubility and/or poor permeability. Here, we aimed to enhance the oral bioavailability of tripterine (TRI, a plant-derived anticancer compound) using lipid nanospheres (LNs) and to determine the mechanisms of oral absorption. TRI-loaded LNs (TRI-LNs) were prepared by rapid(More)
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) plays an important role in metabolism and detoxification of many compounds including drugs and environmental carcinogens through chemical modification of the amine group with an acetyl group. Recent studies have suggested that NATs are also involved in cancer cell growth and inhibition of the enzymes may be a potential(More)
Efflux of glucuronide is facilitated by the membrane transporters including BCRP and MRPs. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of transporter expression on glucuronide efflux and cellular glucuronidation. Single efflux transporter (i.e., BCRP, MRP1, MRP3, or MRP4) was stably knocked-down in UGT1A1-overexpressing HeLa cells. Knock-down of(More)
1. The natural polyphenol gossypol possesses many therapeutic benefits. Here we aim to determine the elimination pathways of gossypol in vivo and in vitro. 2. Metabolite elucidation of gossypol was performed using UPLC-QTOF/MS coupled with Metabolynx analysis. Clearance of gossypol was evaluated in bile duct cannulated rats and in the single-pass perfused(More)
Lipid nanocarriers are becoming a versatile platform for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In this article, we aimed to explore the gastrointestinal behaviors of lipid nanoparticles and the effect of PEGylation on oral absorption of fenofibrate (FN), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II model drug. FN-loaded PEGylated lipid nanoparticles(More)
Systemic delivery of amphiphobic drugs (insoluble in both water and oil) represents a formidable challenge in drug delivery. This work aimed to engineer a functional mesoporous carbon material to efficiently load SNX-2112, an amphiphobic anticancer agent, and to evaluate its performance in tumor-targeting delivery. Hydrothermal reaction combined with(More)
Astrocytes associate with synapses throughout the brain and express receptors for neurotransmitters that can increase intracellular calcium (Ca2+). Astrocytic Ca2+ signalling has been proposed to modulate neural circuit activity, but the pathways that regulate these events are poorly defined and in vivo evidence linking changes in astrocyte Ca2+ levels to(More)
1. The efflux pump p-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) has received enormous attention in drug (xenobiotic) disposition due to its role in modulation of the drug availability and in protection of sensitive organs. 2. P-gp mediated efflux is one of main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancer cells. A main approach to reverse the resistance and restore the(More)