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We prove a complexity classification theorem that classifies all counting constraint satisfaction problems (#CSP) over Boolean variables into exactly three classes: (1) Polynomial-time solvable; (2) #P-hard for general instances, but solvable in polynomial-time over planar structures; and (3) #P-hard over planar structures. The classification applies to all(More)
Holographic algorithms with matchgates are a novel approach to design polynomial time computation. It uses Kasteleyn's algorithm for perfect matchings, and more importantly a holographic reduction. The two fundamental parameters of a holographic reduction are the domain size k of the underlying problem, and the basis size ℓ. A holographic reduction(More)
We prove a complexity dichotomy for complex-weighted Holant problems with an arbitrary set of symmetric constraint functions on Boolean variables. In the study of counting complexity, such as #CSP, there are problems which are #P-hard over general graphs but P-time solvable over planar graphs. A recurring theme has been that a holographic reduction [36] to(More)
An essential problem in the design of holographic algorithms is to decide whether the required signatures can be realized by matchgates under a suitable basis transformation (SRP). For holographic algorithms on domain size 2, [1, 2, 4, 5] have built a systematical theory. In this paper, we reduce SRP on domain size k ≥ 3 to SRP on domain size 2 for(More)
BACKGROUND This study aimed to compare the surgical outcomes between open pedicle screw fixation (OPSF) and percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PPSF) for the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures, which has received scant research attention to date. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eight-four patients with acute and subacute thoracolumbar fractures who were treated(More)