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Multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells hold great promise for cell therapy. The reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells as well as mature neurons suggests a possibility to convert a terminally differentiated somatic cell into a multipotent state without first establishing pluripotency. Here, we demonstrate that Sertoli cells derived(More)
PTEN is a tumour suppressor frequently mutated in many types of cancers. Here we show that targeted disruption of PTEN leads to neoplastic transformation of human neural stem cells (NSCs), but not mesenchymal stem cells. PTEN-deficient NSCs display neoplasm-associated metabolic and gene expression profiles and generate intracranial tumours in(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a potent inhibitor of neurogenesis in vitro but here we show that TNFα signaling has both positive and negative effects on neurogenesis in vivo and is required to moderate the negative impact of cranial irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis. In vitro, basal levels of TNFα signaling through TNFR2 are required for(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that DLL4 (Delta-like 4)-Notch signaling plays a critical role in cell fate determination and differentiation in tissues. Blocking DLL4-Notch signaling results in inhibition of tumor growth, which is associated with increased nonfunctional vessels and poor perfusion in the tumor. We successfully generated a human DLL4 monoclonal(More)
The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. This study showed that the miRNA-27a (miR-27a) was significantly reduced in colorectal cancer tissues and colorectal cancer cell lines, and that the reduced miR-27a was associated with distant metastasis and colorectal(More)
Juvenile (2–23 years old) cynomolgus monkeys are frequently used as recipients in non-human primate islet transplantation studies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different doses of streptozotocin (STZ), and find the optimal dose for inducing diabetes in these monkeys. Fifteen juvenile (2–3 years old) cynomolgus monkeys were separated(More)
Stem cells are under strict regulation by both intrinsic factors and the microenvironment. There is increasing evidence that many cancers initiate through acquisition of genetic mutations (loss of intrinsic control) in stem cells or their progenitors, followed by alterations of the surrounding microenvironment (loss of extrinsic control). In(More)
Cell migration, which involves acto-myosin dynamics, cell adhesion, membrane trafficking and signal transduction, is a prerequisite for cancer cell metastasis. Here, we report that an actin-dependent molecular motor, unconventional myosin Va, is involved in this process and implicated in cancer metastasis. The mRNA expression of myosin Va is increased in a(More)