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Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a potent inhibitor of neurogenesis in vitro but here we show that TNFα signaling has both positive and negative effects on neurogenesis in vivo and is required to moderate the negative impact of cranial irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis. In vitro, basal levels of TNFα signaling through TNFR2 are required for(More)
The role of interleukin-18 (IL-18) in excitotoxic neurodegeneration is largely unknown. To address this issue, we used kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in IL-18 knockout (KO) mice. One day after KA administration, clinical symptoms and histopathological changes did not differ between IL-18 KO mice and wild-type mice. However, 7 days(More)
Multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells hold great promise for cell therapy. The reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells as well as mature neurons suggests a possibility to convert a terminally differentiated somatic cell into a multipotent state without first establishing pluripotency. Here, we demonstrate that Sertoli cells derived(More)
Glutamate excitotoxicity plays a key role in inducing neuronal cell death in many neurological diseases. In mice, administration of kainic acid, an analogue of the excitotoxin glutamate, results in hippocampal cell death and seizures. Kainic-acid-induced seizures in mice provide a well-characterized model for studies of human neurodegenerative diseases.(More)
The roles of T cells and B cells in kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal lesions were studied in C57BL/6 mice lacking specific T cell populations (CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 cells) and B cells [Igh-6(-/-)]. At 48 mg/kg of KA administrated intranasally, KA-induced convulsions were seen in all groups. However, CD4/CD8(-/-) mice exhibited the mildest seizures; the(More)
It remains a challenge to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or embryonic stem (ES) cells to Purkinje cells. In this study, we derived iPSCs from human fibroblasts and directed the specification of iPSCs first to Purkinje progenitors, by adding Fgf2 and insulin to the embryoid bodies (EBs) in a time-sensitive manner, which activates(More)
BACKGROUND The role of histocompatibility and immune recognition in stem cell transplant therapy has been controversial, with many reports arguing that undifferentiated stem cells are protected from immune recognition due to the absence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) markers. This argument is even more persuasive in transplantation into the(More)
The expansion of motor vehicle fleet in China during the past decade has produced a cascade of challenges, including dealing with end-of-life passenger cars. To date, these cars have not been effectively collected or recycled. Policies must be deliberately devised and reformed to facilitate state-of-the-art vehicle recycling and minimize waste arising from(More)
Stem cells are under strict regulation by both intrinsic factors and the microenvironment. There is increasing evidence that many cancers initiate through acquisition of genetic mutations (loss of intrinsic control) in stem cells or their progenitors, followed by alterations of the surrounding microenvironment (loss of extrinsic control). In(More)