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RNA-Seq has been increasingly used for the quantification and characterization of transcriptomes. The ongoing development of the technology promises the more accurate measurement of gene expression. However, its benefits over widely accepted microarray technologies have not been adequately assessed, especially in toxicogenomics studies. The goal of this(More)
Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress inflammatory immune responses and autoimmunity caused by self-reactive T cells. The key Treg cell transcription factor Foxp3 is downregulated during inflammation to allow for the acquisition of effector T cell-like functions. Here, we demonstrate that stress signals elicited by proinflammatory cytokines and(More)
DNA methylation patterns are initiated by de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3a/3b adding methyl groups to CG dinucleotides in the hypomethylated genome of early embryos. These patterns are faithfully maintained by DNMT1 during DNA replication to ensure epigenetic inheritance across generations. However, this two-step model is based on limited data. We(More)
We investigated and compared the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and SWCNTs functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEGs) in neuronal PC12 cells at the biochemical, cellular, and gene expressional levels. SWCNTs elicited cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner, and SWCNT-PEGs exhibited less(More)
BACKGROUND Dysregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been previously observed in human cancer tissues and shown promise in defining tumor status. However, there is little information as to if or when expression changes of miRNAs occur in normal tissues after carcinogen exposure. RESULTS To explore the possible time-course changes of miRNA(More)
Aristolochic acid (AA) is an active component in herbal drugs derived from the Aristolochia species. Although these drugs have been used since antiquity, AA is both genotoxic and carcinogenic in animals and humans, resulting in kidney tumours in rats and upper urinary tract tumours in humans. In the present study, we conducted microarray analysis of(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of biological processes. The latest version of the miRBase database (Release 18) includes 1,157 mouse and 680 rat mature miRNAs. Only one new rat mature miRNA was added to the rat miRNA database from version 16 to version 18 of miRBase, suggesting that many rat miRNAs remain to be(More)
Triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil are conazoles, an important class of agricultural fungicides. Triadimefon and propiconazole are mouse liver tumorigens, while myclobutanil is not. As part of a coordinated study to understand the molecular determinants of conazole tumorigenicity, we analyzed the microRNA expression levels in control and(More)
BACKGROUND Several different microarray platforms are available for measuring gene expression. There are disagreements within the microarray scientific community for intra- and inter-platform consistency of these platforms. Both high and low consistencies were demonstrated across different platforms in terms of genes with significantly differential(More)
Aristolochic Acid (AA), a natural component of Aristolochia plants that is found in a variety of herbal remedies and health supplements, is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Given that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in cancer initiation and progression and their role remains unknown in AA-induced(More)