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Mammalian pre-implantation development is a complex process involving dramatic changes in the transcriptional architecture. We report here a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome dynamics from oocyte to morula in both human and mouse embryos, using single-cell RNA sequencing. Based on single-nucleotide variants in human blastomere messenger RNAs and(More)
BACKGROUND Intermediate filaments (IFs) are major components of the mammalian cytoskeleton and expressed in cell-type-specific patterns. Morphological changes during cell differentiation are linked to IF network remodeling. However, little is known concerning the presence and the role of IFs in embryonic stem (ES) cells and during their differentiation. (More)
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic factor regulating genome reprogramming, cell differentiation and developmental gene expression. To understand the role of DNA methylation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons, we generated conditional Dnmt1 mutant mice that possess approximately 90% hypomethylated cortical and hippocampal cells in the dorsal(More)
Recent studies in desmin (-/-) mice have shown that the targeted ablation of desmin leads to pathological changes of the extrasarcomeric intermediate filament cytoskeleton, as well as structural and functional abnormalities of mitochondria in striated muscle. Here, we report on a novel heterozygous single adenine insertion mutation (c.5141_5143insA) in a(More)
It has been debated whether human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) express distinctive transcriptomes. By using the method of weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we showed here that iPSCs exhibit altered functional modules compared with ESCs. Notably, iPSCs and ESCs differentially express 17 modules that(More)
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells can be obtained through in vitro differentiation of both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We have previously identified 87 signature genes relevant to RPE cell differentiation and function through transcriptome analysis of both human ESC- and iPSC-derived RPE as well as normal(More)
DNA methylation is known to regulate cell differentiation and neuronal function in vivo. Here we examined whether deficiency of a de novo DNA methyltransferase, Dnmt3a, affects in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to neuronal and glial cell lineages. Early-passage neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from Dnmt3a-deficient ESCs(More)
Whether human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are epigenetically identical to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been debated in the stem cell field. In this study, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns in a large number of hiPSCs (n = 114) and hESCs (n = 155), and identified a panel of 82 CpG methylation sites that can distinguish hiPSCs from(More)
The corneal endothelium is composed of a monolayer of corneal endothelial cells (CECs), which is essential for maintaining corneal transparency. To better characterize CECs in different developmental stages, we profiled mRNA transcriptomes in human fetal and adult corneal endothelium with the goal to identify novel molecular markers in these cells. By(More)
Single-cell transcriptome and single-cell methylome technologies have become powerful tools to study RNA and DNA methylation profiles of single cells at a genome-wide scale. A major challenge has been to understand the direct correlation of DNA methylation and gene expression within single-cells. Due to large cell-to-cell variability and the lack of direct(More)