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BACKGROUND Spontaneous control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been documented in a minority of HIV-infected individuals. The mechanisms behind this outcome remain largely unknown, and a better understanding of them will likely influence future vaccine strategies. METHODS HIV-specific T cell and antibody responses as well as host(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the loss to care and mortality rates before starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) among ART eligible HIV-infected patients in Durban, South Africa. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. METHODS We reviewed data from ART eligible adults (> or = 18 years) at an urban HIV clinic that charges a monthly fee from July to December 2006. ART(More)
BACKGROUND Emergence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. The prevalence of resistance was assessed among patients from KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, following failure of their first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the rate of CD4 decline and the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) among antiretroviral therapy-naive South African HIV-infected patients and inform timing of OI prophylaxis. METHODS We used mixed-effect models to estimate CD4 cell decline by CD4 cell count strata in HIV-infected patients in the Cape Town AIDS Cohort(More)
BACKGROUND Faith-based organisations have expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) in community clinics across South Africa. Loss to follow-up (LTFU), however, limits the potential individual and population treatment benefits and optimal care. OBJECTIVE To identify patient characteristics associated with LTFU 6 months after starting ART in a large community(More)
BACKGROUND More patients in resource-limited settings are starting second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) following first-line ART failure. We aimed to describe predictors of lack of virological suppression in HIV-infected patients on second-line ART in a roll-out programme in South Africa. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed on an adult(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OPRM1 gene have been associated with vulnerability to opioid dependence. The current study identifies an association of an intronic SNP (rs9479757) with the severity of heroin addiction among Han-Chinese male heroin addicts. Individual SNP analysis and haplotype-based analysis with additional SNPs in the OPRM1(More)
BACKGROUND Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been proved to be closely correlated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components that are all risk factors of cardiovascular disease and may play a protective role against vascular injury and atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum PEDF and(More)
Reactive power optimization in power system is a complex nonlinear combinatorial optimization problem with multiple constrained conditions. However, direct neural dynamic programming (direct NDP) approach based on on-line measurements can be employed in this situation, which is independent of models. In this paper, on the basis of applicable analysis to(More)
PURPOSE To study the diagnostic performance of the ratio of lesion length (LL) to the fourth power of minimal lumen diameter (MLD) (MLD(4)) at coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography for differentiating between hemodynamically significant and nonsignificant lesions, with correlation with fractional flow reserve (FFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS This(More)