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Rice bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the most serious rice diseases worldwide. A rice gene, Xa26, conferring resistance against Xoo at both seedling and adult stages was isolated by map-based cloning strategies from the rice cultivar Minghui 63. Xa26 belongs to a multigene family consisting of four members. It(More)
Autophagy, a cellular catabolic pathway, is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. Central to this process is the formation of autophagosomes, double-membrane vesicles responsible for delivering long-lived proteins and excess or damaged organelle into the lysosome for degradation and reuse of the resulting macromolecules. In addition to the(More)
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular degradation process in which portions of cytosol and organelles are sequestered into a double-membrane vesicle, an autophagosome, and delivered into a degradative organelle, the vacuole/lysosome, for breakdown and eventual recycling of the resulting macromolecules. This process relieves the cell from various stress(More)
The large size and extreme polarization of neurons is crucial to their ability to communicate at long distances and to form the complex cellular networks of the nervous system. The size, shape, and compartmentalization of these specialized cells must be generated and supported by the cytoskeletal systems of intracellular transport. One of the major systems(More)
Proteins of the kinesin superfamily define a class of microtubule-dependent motors that play crucial roles in cell division and intracellular transport. To study the molecular mechanism of axonal transport, a cDNA encoding a new kinesin-like protein called KIF3C was cloned from a mouse brain cDNA library. Sequence and secondary structure analysis revealed(More)
In response to stress conditions (such as nutrient limitation or accumulation of damaged organelles) and certain pathological situations, eukaryotic cells use autophagy as a survival mechanism. During nutrient stress the main purpose of autophagy is to degrade cytoplasmic materials within the lysosome/vacuole lumen and generate an internal nutrient pool(More)
Kinesin-related proteins constitute a superfamily of microtubule-dependent motors that play important roles in organelle transport and cell division. These molecules share a conserved motor region of approximately 340 amino acids, which is attached to diverse "tail" or cargo-binding domains. The kinesin superfamily was first defined by kinesin heavy chain,(More)
The subcellular distribution of kinases and other signaling proteins is regulated in response to cellular cues; however, the extent of this regulation has not been investigated for any gene set in any organism. Here, we present a systematic analysis of protein kinases in the budding yeast, screening for differential localization during filamentous growth.(More)
Eukaryotic cells have evolved strategies to respond to stress conditions. For example, autophagy in yeast is primarily a response to the stress of nutrient limitation. Autophagy is a catabolic process for the degradation and recycling of cytosolic, long lived, or aggregated proteins and excess or defective organelles. In this study, we demonstrate a new(More)