Zhien Wang

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O ne of the more stunning features of the images of earth from space are the clouds that move around our planet in quasi-organized large-scale systems (e.g., Rossow and Cairns 1995). The character and movement of these coherent cloud features are primarily governed by the large-scale atmospheric circulation and, as such, are an essential manifestation of(More)
Hurricane Nora traveled up the Baja Peninsula coast in the unusually warm El Niño waters of September 1997 until rapidly decaying as it approached southern California on 24 September. The anvil cirrus blowoff from the final surge of tropical convection became embedded in subtropical flow that advected the cirrus across the western United States, where it(More)
A retrieval algorithm is described to estimate vertical profiles of cirrus-cloud ice water content (IWC) and general effective size D ge from combined lidar and radar measurements. In the algorithm, the lidar extinction coefficient ␴ is parameterized as ␴ ϭ IWC[a 0 ϩ (a 1 /D ge)] and water equivalent radar reflectivity factor Z e is parameterized as Z e ϭ(More)
in characterizing ice crystal shape and particle size distribution in optically thin ice clouds. U pper-tropospheric ice clouds are important modulators of the Earth's climate, cover 20% of the globe at any given time (Liou 1986), and occur ~43% of the time in long-term satellite datasets (Wylie and Menzel 1999). Ice clouds, such as cirrus, tend to reflect(More)
A continental stratus cloud layer was studied by advanced ground-based remote sensing instruments and aircraft probes on 30 April 1994 from the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in north-central Oklahoma. The boundary layer structure clearly resembled that of a cloud-topped mixed layer, and the cloud content is shown to be near adiabatic up to the cloud-top(More)
In this study several ice cloud retrieval products that utilize active and passive A-Train measurements are evaluated using in situ data collected during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) field campaign. The retrieval datasets include ice water content (IWC), effective radius r e , and visible extinction s from CloudSat level-2C ice cloud property(More)
Morphine reexposure induces the decrease of receptor for activated C-kinase 1 protein (RACK1) levels in frontal cortex, and the increase of p-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) levels in mouse frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Moreover, RACK1 is associated with the core kinases of the ERK pathway, Raf, MEK, and(More)
[1] Accurate observations of cloud microphysical properties are needed for evaluating and improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models and better estimate of the Earth radiative budget. However, large differences are found in current cloud products retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements using various retrieval(More)
Using the method of Fridman and his colleagues, a statistical test of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) for detecting auditory thresholds is presented. The synchrony measure (SM) which represents the degree of reproducibility for group averages was used to calculate the selected Fourier components of the group averages from phase variance. The sensitivity(More)