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O ne of the more stunning features of the images of earth from space are the clouds that move around our planet in quasi-organized large-scale systems (e.g., Rossow and Cairns 1995). The character and movement of these coherent cloud features are primarily governed by the large-scale atmospheric circulation and, as such, are an essential manifestation of(More)
The Wyoming Cloud Lidar (WCL), a compact two-channel elastic lidar, was designed to obtain cloud measurements together with the Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR) on the University of Wyoming King Air and the National Science Foundation/National Center of Atmospheric Research C-130 aircraft. The WCL has been deployed in four field projects under a variety of(More)
Hurricane Nora traveled up the Baja Peninsula coast in the unusually warm El Niño waters of September 1997 until rapidly decaying as it approached southern California on 24 September. The anvil cirrus blowoff from the final surge of tropical convection became embedded in subtropical flow that advected the cirrus across the western United States, where it(More)
A retrieval algorithm is described to estimate vertical profiles of cirrus-cloud ice water content (IWC) and general effective size D ge from combined lidar and radar measurements. In the algorithm, the lidar extinction coefficient ␴ is parameterized as ␴ ϭ IWC[a 0 ϩ (a 1 /D ge)] and water equivalent radar reflectivity factor Z e is parameterized as Z e ϭ(More)
in characterizing ice crystal shape and particle size distribution in optically thin ice clouds. U pper-tropospheric ice clouds are important modulators of the Earth's climate, cover 20% of the globe at any given time (Liou 1986), and occur ~43% of the time in long-term satellite datasets (Wylie and Menzel 1999). Ice clouds, such as cirrus, tend to reflect(More)
A continental stratus cloud layer was studied by advanced ground-based remote sensing instruments and aircraft probes on 30 April 1994 from the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in north-central Oklahoma. The boundary layer structure clearly resembled that of a cloud-topped mixed layer, and the cloud content is shown to be near adiabatic up to the cloud-top(More)
In this study several ice cloud retrieval products that utilize active and passive A-Train measurements are evaluated using in situ data collected during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) field campaign. The retrieval datasets include ice water content (IWC), effective radius r e , and visible extinction s from CloudSat level-2C ice cloud property(More)
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) constitute a family of innate immune recognition molecules. In Drosophila, distinct PGRPs bind to peptidoglycans on gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria and provide essential signals upstream of the Toll and Imd pathways required for immunity against infection. Four PGRPs, PGRP-L, -S, -Ialpha, and -Ibeta, are(More)
[1] Accurate observations of cloud microphysical properties are needed for evaluating and improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models and better estimate of the Earth radiative budget. However, large differences are found in current cloud products retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements using various retrieval(More)