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One of the major sources of uncertainty associated with geographical data in GIS arises when they are the outcome of a sampling process. It is well known that when sampling from a spatially autocorrelated homogeneous surface, stratification reduces the error variance of the estimator of the population mean. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of(More)
BACKGROUND Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mostly affects the health of infants and preschool children. Many studies of HFMD in different regions have been published. However, the epidemiological characteristics and space-time patterns of individual-level HFMD cases in a major city such as Beijing are unknown. The objective of this study was to(More)
Various sampling techniques are widely used in environmental, social and resource surveys. Spatial sampling techniques are more efficient than conventional sampling when surveying spatially distributed targets such as CO 2 emissions, soil pollution, a population distribution, disaster distribution, and disease incidence, where spatial autocorrelation and(More)
Many outbreaks of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza have occurred in schools with a high population density. Containment of school outbreaks is predicted to help mitigate pandemic influenza. Understanding disease transmission characteristics within the school setting is critical to implementing effective control measures. Based on a school outbreak survey, we found(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertension, an important risk factor for the health of human being, is often accompanied by various comorbidities. However, the incidence patterns of those comorbidities have not been widely studied. AIM Applying big-data techniques on a large collection of electronic medical records, we investigated sex-specific and age-specific detection(More)