Zhichao Zhao

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Motivated by online advertisement and exchange settings, greedy randomized algorithms for the maximum matching problem have been studied, in which the algorithm makes (random) decisions that are essentially oblivious to the input graph. Any greedy algorithm can achieve performance ratio 0.5, which is the expected number of matched nodes to the number of(More)
The past several years have seen tremendous advances in practical, general-purpose, non-interactive proof systems called SNARKs. These building blocks are efficient and convenient, with multiple publicly available implementations, including tools to compile high-level code (e.g., written in C) to arithmetic circuits, the native representation used by SNARK(More)
Non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs are a powerful cryptographic primitive used in privacy-preserving protocols. We design and build C∅C∅, the first system enabling developers to build efficient, composable, non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs for generic, user-defined statements. C∅C∅ extends state-of-the-art SNARK constructions by applying known(More)
Plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP), a dominant RNA polymerase in mature chloroplasts, consists of core subunits and peripheral subunits. Despite the importance of the peripheral subunits in control of PEP activity it is unclear how they interact with one another to exert physiological effects on chloroplast development and plant growth, especially(More)
WSL3 encodes β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR) in rice, in a similar way to YBR159w in yeast, and is essential for VLCFA biosynthesis and leaf wax accumulation. Cuticular waxes on plant surfaces limit non-stomatal water loss, protect plants against deposits of dust and impose a physical barrier to pathogen infection. We identified a wax-deficient mutant of(More)
The keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are the structural proteins of hair fibers and are thought to play an important role in determining the physical properties of hair fibers. These proteins are activated in a striking sequential and spatial pattern in the keratinocytes of hair fibers. Thus, it is important to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the(More)
Mutation of BSH1 leads to brittle sheath phenotype and reduction of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives in wax. The cell wall plays an important role in plant mechanical strength. Several brittle culm mutants have been identified and characterized in rice. Here, we characterized an anther culture-derived rice brittle sheath mutant, named bsh1(More)
Given a rooted tree with n nodes, the tree shortcut problem is to add a set of shortcut edges to the tree such that the shortest path from each node to any of its ancestors is of length O(log n) and the degree increment of each node is constant. We consider in this paper the dynamic version of the problem, which supports node insertion and deletion. For(More)