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It is important to know how different organs 'manage' their stem cells. Both hair and feather follicles show robust regenerative powers that episodically renew the epithelial organ. However, the evolution of feathers (from reptiles to birds) and hairs (from reptiles to mammals) are independent events and their follicular structures result from convergent(More)
In the process of organogenesis, different cell types form organized tissues and tissues are integrated into an organ. Most organs form in the developmental stage, but new organs can also form in physiological states or following injuries during adulthood. Feathers are a good model to study post-natal organogenesis because they regenerate episodically under(More)
Skin appendage formation represents a process of regulated new growth. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling of developing chicken skin demonstrated the presence of localized growth zones, which first promote appendage formation and then move within each appendage to produce specific shapes. Initially, cells proliferate all over the presumptive skin. During the(More)
The feather is a complex epidermal organ with hierarchical branches and represents a multi-layered topological transformation of keratinocyte sheets. Feathers are made in feather follicles. The basics of feather morphogenesis were previously described (Lucas and Stettenheim, 1972). Here we review new molecular and cellular data. After feather buds form(More)
In a feather, there are distinct morphologies along the proximal-distal axis. The proximal part is a cylindrical stalk (calamus), whereas the distal part has barb and barbule branches. Here we focus on what molecular signaling activity can modulate feather stem cells to generate these distinct morphologies. We demonstrate the drastic tissue remodeling(More)
Avian feathers have robust growth and regeneration capability. To evaluate the contribution of signaling molecules and pathways in these processes, we profiled gene expression in the feather follicle using an absolute quantification approach. We identified hundreds of genes that mark specific components of the feather follicle: the dermal papillae (DP)(More)
Kinases control many important aspects of cell behavior, such as signal transduction, growth/differentiation, and tumorogenesis. Current methods for assessing kinase activity often require specific antibodies, and/or radioactive labeling. Here we demonstrated a novel detection method to assess kinase activity based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy(More)
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a common therapeutic agent in cancer therapy. It damages normal tissue and causes side effects including dermatitis and mucositis. Here we use the feather follicle as a model to investigate the mechanism of IR-induced tissue damage, because any perturbation of feather growth will be clearly recorded in its regular yet complex(More)
BACKGROUND The small bowel (SB) represents the most important dose-limiting structure in pelvic radiotherapy (RT). However, we observed that the majority of rectal cancer patients who received preoperative pelvic intensity modulated RT (IMRT) developed acute tenesmus without watery diarrhea. The objective of this study is to determine if the RT dose to SB(More)
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