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Recent studies suggest that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a major energy sensor and regulator in adipose tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of AMPK in nicotine-induced lipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Exposure of 3T3L1 adipocytes to smoking-related concentrations of nicotine increased lipolysis(More)
In the postprandial state, the liver takes up and stores glucose to minimize the fluctuation of glycemia. Elevated insulin concentrations, an increase in the load of glucose reaching the liver, and the oral/enteral/portal vein route of glucose delivery (compared with the peripheral intravenous route) are factors that increase the rate of net hepatic glucose(More)
We previously showed that hepatic nitric oxide regulates net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU), an effect that can be eliminated by inhibiting hepatic soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), suggesting that the sGC pathway is involved in the regulation of NHGU. The aim of the current study was to determine whether hepatic cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) reduces(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic gut peptide released after eating, is essential for normal glucose tolerance (GT). To determine whether this effect is mediated directly by GLP-1 receptors (GLP1R) on islet β cells, we developed mice with β cell-specific knockdown of Glp1r. β cell Glp1r knockdown mice had impaired GT after intraperitoneal(More)
In individuals with type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia is a common consequence of overinsulinization. Under conditions of insulin-induced hypoglycemia, glucagon is the most important stimulus for hepatic glucose production. In contrast, during euglycemia, insulin potently inhibits glucagon's effect on the liver. The first aim of the present study was to(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine how increasing the hepatic glycogen content would affect the liver's ability to take up and metabolize glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS During the first 4 h of the study, liver glycogen deposition was stimulated by intraportal fructose infusion in the presence of hyperglycemic-normoinsulinemia.(More)
OBJECTIVE We previously showed that elevating hepatic nitric oxide (NO) levels reduced net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) in the presence of portal glucose delivery, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of a downstream signal, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), in the regulation of NHGU by NO. RESEARCH(More)
To determine the role of nitric oxide in regulating net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) in vivo, studies were performed on three groups of 42-h-fasted conscious dogs using a nitric oxide donor [3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1)]. The experimental period was divided into period 1 (0-90 min) and period 2 (P2; 90-240 min). At 0 min, somatostatin was infused(More)
To determine the effect of an acute increase in hepatic glycogen on net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) and disposition in response to insulin in vivo, studies were performed on two groups of dogs fasted 18 h. During the first 4 h of the study, somatostatin was infused peripherally, while insulin and glucagon were replaced intraportally in basal amounts.(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Impairment of the incretin effect is one of the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is unknown whether this abnormality is specific to incretin-stimulated insulin secretion or a manifestation of generalized β-cell dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine whether improved glycemic control restores the(More)