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Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) cation channels are encoded by HCN1-4 gene family and have four subtypes. These channels are activated upon hyperpolarization of membrane potential and conduct an inward, excitatory current Ih in the nervous system. Ih acts as pacemaker current to initiate rhythmic firing, dampen dendritic(More)
The hyperpolarization-activated/cyclic nucleotide (HCN)-gated channels make important contributions to neural excitability. In prefrontal cortex, HCN channels are localized on the distal dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons and decrease neural excitability when they are open. In the present study, using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings, the effect of(More)
The hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, or cardiac (I(f))/neuronal (I(h)) time- and voltage-dependent inward cation current channels, are conventionally considered as monovalent-selective channels. Recently we discovered that calcium ions can permeate through HCN4 and I(h) channels in neurons. This raises the possibility of(More)
Behavioral studies have demonstrated that both medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and cerebellum play critical roles in trace eyeblink conditioning. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which the two brain regions interact. By use of electrical stimulation of the caudal mPFC as a conditioned stimulus, we show evidence that persistent outputs(More)
Short-term sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to enhance cortical activity. However, alterations in the cellular excitability of cortical neurons following SD are not yet fully understood. The present study investigated the effects of 4-hour SD on pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. SD led to(More)
It is widely known that hypocretins are essential for the regulation of wakefulness. Our recent reports have found that hypocretin-1 shows a direct postsynaptic excitatory effect on rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons. It remains unclear whether hypocretin-1 may interact with two classical neurotransmitter systems, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric(More)
Hypocretins are crucial for the regulation of wakefulness by the excitatory actions on multiple subcortical arousal systems. To date, there is little information about the direct postsynaptic excitatory effects of hypocretins on the neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is important for higher cognitive functions and is correlated with level of(More)
Although opioids are known to influence sleep-wake regulation, the neuroanatomic substrate(s) mediating these effects remain unresolved. We hypothesized that the influence of opiates on sleep may be mediated, at least in part, by the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), a key cell group for producing behavioral sleep. By combining in situ hybridization(More)
Our previous observations showed that several stimuli, including high-K(+) solution, glutamate, and voltage pulses, induce somatic noradrenaline (NA) secretion from locus ceruleus (LC) neurons. Hypocretin (orexin), a hypothalamic peptide critical for normal wakefulness, has been shown to evoke NA release from the axon terminals of LC neurons. Here, we used(More)
Several studies have shown that astrocytes release neurotransmitters into the extracellular space that may then activate receptors on nearby neurons. In the present study, the actions of adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADPbetaS)-activated astrocyte conditioned medium (ADPbetaS-ACM) on cultured dorsal spinal cord neurons were evaluated by using confocal(More)