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This paper proposes a dynamic small signal model of the constant-frequency pulse width modulator of switching converters. The existing model is represented as a simple gain block F<sub>m</sub>, which is relatively short in both accuracy and physical meanings. Employing the methods of probability, this dynamic model provides a more accurate prediction of the(More)
The Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-VRP) is a novel variant of Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), in which freight from a depot is compulsorily delivered through intermediate depots, called satellites. The first echelon is from depot to satellites, while the second from satellites to customers. Solution to 2E-VRP is challenging and limited. In this(More)
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