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An oracle is a mechanism against which the tester can decide whether the outputs of the program for the executed test cases are correct. A fundamental problem of software testing is that, in many situations, the oracle is not available or too difficult to apply. A metamorphic testing (MT) method has been proposed to alleviate the oracle problem. MT is an(More)
How autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic system for bulk degradation, selectively degrades protein aggregates is poorly understood. Here, we show that several maternally derived germ P granule components are selectively eliminated by autophagy in somatic cells during C. elegans embryogenesis. The activity of sepa-1 is required for(More)
An " oracle " in software testing is a procedure by which testers can decide whether the output of the program under testing is correct. In some situations, however, the oracle is not available or too difficult to apply. This is known as the " oracle problem ". In other situations, the oracle is often the human tester who checks the testing result manually.(More)
Recent studies have shown a rapid, robust, and lasting antidepressant effect of ketamine that makes ketamine a promising antidepressant drug. However, the mechanisms underlying this rapid antidepressant effect remain incompletely understood. The goal of the present study was to determine whether adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was(More)
This is to certify that the thesis/dissertation prepared By Entitled For the degree of Is approved by the final examining committee: Chair To the best of my knowledge and as understood by the student in the Research Integrity and Copyright Disclaimer (Graduate School Form 20), this thesis/dissertation adheres to the provisions of Purdue University's "(More)
To investigate whether exogenous sucrose can protect cucumber from water stress, cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were pretreated with 90 mM sucrose or 90 mM mannitol for 1 d and then were dehydrated with 10 % (m/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 for further 1 d. Dehydration inhibited plant growth and decreased osmotic potential and relative water(More)
Software testing is an approach that ensures the quality of software through execution, with a goal being to reveal failures and other problems as quickly as possible. Test case selection is a fundamental issue in software testing, and has generated a large body of research, especially with regards to the effectiveness of random testing (RT), where test(More)
To elucidate a physiological mechanism of heat stress mitigation by exogenous glucose, seedlings of Cucumis sativus cv. Jinchun No. 4 were pretreated with glucose and then exposed to normal (25/18 °C) and elevated (42/38 °C) temperatures. We investigated whether glucose can protect cucumber plantlets and chloroplast ultrastructure from heat and whether this(More)