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Bestrophins have recently been proposed to comprise a new family of Cl(-) channels. Our goal was to test whether mouse bestrophin-2 (mBest2) is a bona fide Cl(-) channel. We expressed mBest2 in three different mammalian cell lines. mBest2 was trafficked to the plasma membrane as shown by biotinylation and immunoprecipitation, and induced a Ca(2+)-activated(More)
RATIONALE Ca2+ -activated Cl channels play pivotal roles in the cardiovascular system. They regulate vascular smooth muscle tone and participate in cardiac action potential repolarization in some species. Ca2+ -activated Cl channels were recently discovered to be encoded by members of the anoctamin (Ano, also called Tmem16) superfamily, but the mechanisms(More)
Ca(2+)-activated Cl channels (Cl(Ca)Cs) are an important class of anion channels that are opened by increases in cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Here, we examine the mechanisms of anion permeation through Cl(Ca)Cs from Xenopus oocytes in excised inside-out and outside-out patches. Cl(Ca)Cs exhibited moderate selectivity for Cl over Na: P(Na)/P(Cl) = 0.1. The apparent(More)
Ca2+-activated Cl- channels play important diverse roles from fast block to polyspermy to olfactory transduction, but their molecular identity has not been firmly established. By searching sequence databases with the M2 pore domain of ligand-gated anion channels, we identified potential Ca2+-activated Cl- channels, which included members of the bestrophin(More)
Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) perform many important functions in cell physiology including secretion of fluids from acinar cells of secretory glands, amplification of olfactory transduction, regulation of cardiac and neuronal excitability, mediation of the fast block to polyspermy in amphibian oocytes, and regulation of vascular tone. Although a(More)
This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the bestrophins, a newly identified family of proteins that can function both as Cl(-) channels and as regulators of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The founding member, human bestrophin-1 (hBest1), was identified as the gene responsible for a dominantly inherited, juvenile-onset form of macular(More)
We examined the voltage-dependent block of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels by anthacene-9-carboxylic acid (A9C), diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid (DPC), 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), and niflumic acid (NFA) in excised inside-out and outside-out patches from Xenopus oocytes. The fraction of the voltage field (delta) experienced by(More)
CO2 chemoreception may be related to modulation of inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir channels) in brainstem neurons. Kir4.1 is expressed predominantly in the brainstem and inhibited during hypercapnia. Although the homomeric Kir4.1 only responds to severe intracellular acidification, coexpression of Kir4.1 with Kir5.1 greatly enhances channel sensitivities(More)
The gut-derived orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin enhances neuronal firing in the substantia nigra pars compacta, where dopaminergic neurons modulate the function of the nigrostriatal system for motor coordination. Here we describe a novel mechanism by which ghrelin enhances firing of nigral dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting voltage-gated potassium(More)
The Ca(2+)-activated Cl channel anoctamin-1 (Ano1; Tmem16A) plays a variety of physiological roles, including epithelial fluid secretion. Ano1 is activated by increases in intracellular Ca(2+), but there is uncertainty whether Ca(2+) binds directly to Ano1 or whether phosphorylation or additional Ca(2+)-binding subunits like calmodulin (CaM) are required.(More)