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The antifungal therapy caspofungin is a semi-synthetic derivative of pneumocandin B0, a lipohexapeptide produced by the fungus Glarea lozoyensis, and was the first member of the echinocandin class approved for human therapy. The nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-polyketide synthases (PKS) gene cluster responsible for pneumocandin biosynthesis from G.(More)
The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a promising therapeutic target for treating coronary heart disease. We report a novel antibody 1B20 that binds to PCSK9 with sub-nanomolar affinity and antagonizes PCSK9 function in-vitro. In CETP/LDLR-hemi mice two successive doses of 1B20, administered 14 days apart at 3 or 10 mpk, induced dose(More)
Aberrant expression and activation of EGFR and ERBB2 (HER2) have been successfully targeted for cancer therapeutics. Recent evidence from both basic and clinical studies suggests that ERBB3 (HER3) serves as a key activator of downstream signaling through dimerization with other ERBB proteins and plays a critical role in the widespread clinical resistance to(More)
BACKGROUND Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. Huge commercial demand has led to excessive harvest and a dramatic decline in its numbers. The diversity of terrains and climates on the Tibetan Plateau and the broad insect host range(More)
Rabbit antibodies have been widely used in research and diagnostics due to their high antigen specificity and affinity. Though these properties are also highly desirable for therapeutic applications, rabbit antibodies have remained untapped for human disease therapy. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RabMAbs), we(More)
ERBB3/HER3 is emerging as a molecular target for various cancers. HER3 is overexpressed and activated in a number of cancer types under the conditions of acquired resistance to other HER family therapeutic interventions such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antibody therapies. Regulation of the HER3 expression and signaling involves numerous HER3(More)
Recent studies reported that human IgG antibodies are susceptible to specific proteolytic cleavage in their lower hinge region, and the hinge cleavage results in a loss of Fc-mediated effector functions. Trastuzumab is a humanized IgG1 therapeutic monoclonal antibody for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers, and its mechanisms of action(More)
Dimerization among the EGFR family of tyrosine kinase receptors leads to allosteric activation of the kinase domains of the partners. Unlike other members in the family, the kinase domain of HER3 lacks key amino acid residues for catalytic activity. As a result, HER3 is suggested to serve as an allosteric activator of other EGFR family members which include(More)
In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to(More)