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Multi-label learning originated from the investigation of text categorization problem, where each document may belong to several predefined topics simultaneously. In multi-label learning, the training set is composed of instances each associated with a set of labels, and the task is to predict the label sets of unseen instances through analyzing training(More)
While recognition of most facial variations, such as identity, expression, and gender, has been extensively studied, automatic age estimation has rarely been explored. In contrast to other facial variations, aging variation presents several unique characteristics which make age estimation a challenging task. This paper proposes an automatic age estimation(More)
In multilabel learning, each instance in the training set is associated with a set of labels and the task is to output a label set whose size is unknown a priori for each unseen instance. In this paper, this problem is addressed in the way that a neural network algorithm named BP-MLL, i.e., backpropagation for multilabel learning, is proposed. It is derived(More)
In this paper, we formalize multi-instance multi-label learning, where each training example is associated with not only multiple instances but also multiple class labels. Such a problem can occur in many real-world tasks, e.g. an image usually contains multiple patches each of which can be described by a feature vector, and the image can belong to multiple(More)
Neural network ensemble is a learning paradigm where many neural networks are jointly used to solve a problem. In this paper, the relationship between the ensemble and its component neural networks is analyzed from the context of both regression and classification, which reveals that it may be better to ensemble many instead of all of the neural networks at(More)
This paper presents the top 10 data mining algorithms identified by the IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM) in December 2006: C4.5, k-Means, SVM, Apriori, EM, PageRank, AdaBoost, kNN, Naive Bayes, and CART. These top 10 algorithms are among the most influential data mining algorithms in the research community. With each algorithm, we provide(More)
Multi-label learning studies the problem where each example is represented by a single instance while associated with a set of labels simultaneously. During the past decade, significant amount of progresses have been made toward this emerging machine learning paradigm. This paper aims to provide a timely review on this area with emphasis on state-of-the-art(More)
Under-sampling is a class-imbalance learning method which uses only a subset of major class examples and thus is very efficient. The main deficiency is that many major class examples are ignored. We propose two algorithms to overcome the deficiency. EasyEnsemble samples several subsets from the major class, trains a learner using each of them, and combines(More)
Previous studies on multi-instance learning typically treated instances in the <i>bags</i> as <i>independently and identically distributed</i>. The instances in a bag, however, are rarely independent in real tasks, and a better performance can be expected if the instances are treated in an non-i.i.d. way that exploits relations among instances. In this(More)
In many practical data mining applications, such as Web page classification, unlabeled training examples are readily available, but labeled ones are fairly expensive to obtain. Therefore, semi-supervised learning algorithms such as co-training have attracted much attention. In this paper, a new co-training style semi-supervised learning algorithm, named(More)