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We characterized a rice dwarf mutant, ebisu dwarf (d2). It showed the pleiotropic abnormal phenotype similar to that of the rice brassinosteroid (BR)-insensitive mutant, d61. The dwarf phenotype of d2 was rescued by exogenous brassinolide treatment. The accumulation profile of BR intermediates in the d2 mutants confirmed that these plants are deficient in(More)
We have identified a rice (Oryza sativa) brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient mutant, BR-deficient dwarf2 (brd2). The brd2 locus contains a single base deletion in the coding region of Dim/dwf1, a homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana DIMINUTO/DWARF1 (DIM/DWF1). Introduction of the wild-type Dim/dwf1 gene into brd2 restored the normal phenotype. Overproduction and(More)
The retromer is a protein complex that mediates retrograde transport of transmembrane cargoes from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). It is comprised of a cargo-selection subcomplex of Vps26, Vps29 and Vps35 and a membrane-binding coat subcomplex of sorting nexins (SNXs). Previous studies identified SNX1/2 as one of the components of the SNX(More)
GSK1265744 (GSK744) is an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor that has been formulated as a long-acting (LA) injectable suitable for monthly to quarterly clinical administration. GSK744 LA was administered at two time points 4 weeks apart beginning 1 week before virus administration, and macaques were challenged weekly for 8 weeks. GSK744 LA, at plasma(More)
The molecular mechanisms for the retrograde motor dynein-dynactin to unload its cargoes at their final destination remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the regulatory mechanism underlying release of retromer-associated cargoes at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). We report that phosphotidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), a(More)
Cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) have been shown to be upregulated during RNA replication of several viruses, including the HCV replicon model. However, whether PI4P is required in an infectious HCV model remains unknown. Moreover, it is not established whether the host transport machinery is sequestered by the generation of PI4P(More)
The structures of both native and S139A holo-HCV NS3/4A protease domain were solved to high resolution. Subsequently, structures were determined for a series of ketoamide inhibitors in complex with the protease. The changes in the inhibitor potency were correlated with changes in the buried surface area upon binding the inhibitor to the active site. The(More)
Maintaining reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis plays a central role in plants, and is also critical for plant root development. Threshold levels of ROS act as signals for elongation and differentiation of root cells. The protein phosphatase LIKE SEX FOUR2 (LSF2) has been reported to regulate starch metabolism in Arabidopsis, but little is known about(More)
Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation is one of the most crucial post-translational modifications, which is catalyzed in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) in eukaryotic cells. Biochemical and genetic assay leads to the identification of the nine subunits (Ost 1–6, Stt3, Swp1 and Wbp1) of the yeast OST and in(More)