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We characterized a rice dwarf mutant, ebisu dwarf (d2). It showed the pleiotropic abnormal phenotype similar to that of the rice brassinosteroid (BR)-insensitive mutant, d61. The dwarf phenotype of d2 was rescued by exogenous brassinolide treatment. The accumulation profile of BR intermediates in the d2 mutants confirmed that these plants are deficient in(More)
Molecular genetic and physiological studies on brassinosteroid (BR)-related mutants of dicot plants have revealed that BRs play important roles in normal plant growth and development. However, little is known about the function of BR in monocots (grasses), except for the phenotypic analysis of a rice mutant partially insensitive to BR signaling. To(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is an integral part of the ER quality-control system that removes toxic misfolded proteins via ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated degradation. Most of our knowledge on ERAD comes from biochemical and genetic studies in yeast and mammalian cells. Although ERAD is known to operate in plant cells, little is(More)
Mammalian calreticulin (CRT) is a multifunctional Ca(2+)-binding protein involved in more than 40 cellular processes in various subcellular compartments, such as Ca(2+) storage and protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). CRT homologues were discovered in plants almost 15 years ago, and recent studies revealed that many plant species contain 2 or(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum-mediated quality control (ERQC) is a well-studied process in yeast and mammals that retains and disposes misfolded/unassembled polypeptides. By contrast, how plants exert quality control over their secretory proteins is less clear. Here, we report that a mutated brassinosteroid receptor, bri1-5, that carries a Cys69Tyr mutation, is(More)
Asn-linked glycans, or the glycan code, carry crucial information for protein folding, transport, sorting, and degradation. The biochemical pathway for generating such a code is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms and consists of ordered assembly of a lipid-linked tetradeccasaccharide. Most of our current knowledge on glycan biosynthesis was obtained(More)
We have identified a rice (Oryza sativa) brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient mutant, BR-deficient dwarf2 (brd2). The brd2 locus contains a single base deletion in the coding region of Dim/dwf1, a homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana DIMINUTO/DWARF1 (DIM/DWF1). Introduction of the wild-type Dim/dwf1 gene into brd2 restored the normal phenotype. Overproduction and(More)
Since first identifying two alleles of a rice (Oryza sativa) brassinosteroid (BR)-insensitive mutant, d61, that were also defective in an orthologous gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1), we have isolated eight additional alleles, including null mutations, of the rice BRI1 gene OsBRI1. The most severe mutant, d61-4,(More)
The alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) system is the first line of defense against viral infection and a critical link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. IFN-alpha/beta secretion is the hallmark of cellular responses to acute RNA virus infections. As part of their survival strategy, many viruses have evolved mechanisms to counteract the(More)
VRX0466617 is a novel selective small-molecule inhibitor for Chk2 discovered through a protein kinase screening program. In this study, we provide a detailed biochemical and cellular characterization of VRX0466617. We show that VRX0466617 blocks the enzymatic activity of recombinant Chk2, as well as the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced activation of Chk2(More)