Zhi Hong

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RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) encoded by positive-strand RNA viruses is critical to the replication of viral RNA genome. Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA is mediated through a negative-strand intermediate, which is generated through copying the positive-strand genomic RNA. Although it has been(More)
Production of soluble full-length nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to be problematic and requires the addition of salts, glycerol, and detergents. In an effort to improve the solubility of NS5B, the hydrophobic C terminus containing 21 amino acids was removed, yielding a truncated NS5B (NS5BDeltaCT) which is highly(More)
The retromer is a protein complex that mediates retrograde transport of transmembrane cargoes from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). It is comprised of a cargo-selection subcomplex of Vps26, Vps29 and Vps35 and a membrane-binding coat subcomplex of sorting nexins (SNXs). Previous studies identified SNX1/2 as one of the components of the SNX(More)
Recombinant bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) produced in insect cells has been shown to possess an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity. Our initial attempt to produce the full-length BVDV NS5B with a C-terminal hexahistidine tag in Escherichia coli failed due to the expression of insoluble products. Prompted by a(More)
The molecular mechanisms for the retrograde motor dynein-dynactin to unload its cargoes at their final destination remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the regulatory mechanism underlying release of retromer-associated cargoes at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). We report that phosphotidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), a(More)
Cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) have been shown to be upregulated during RNA replication of several viruses, including the HCV replicon model. However, whether PI4P is required in an infectious HCV model remains unknown. Moreover, it is not established whether the host transport machinery is sequestered by the generation of PI4P(More)
A direct comparison of the inhibitory effects of alpha, beta, and gamma interferons (IFNs) on replication of a hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon in a hepatoma cell line revealed similarities in antiviral potency. However, alternate IFN-induced antiviral mechanisms were suggested following observations of striking differences between IFN-gamma and(More)
GSK1265744 (GSK744) is an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor that has been formulated as a long-acting (LA) injectable suitable for monthly to quarterly clinical administration. GSK744 LA was administered at two time points 4 weeks apart beginning 1 week before virus administration, and macaques were challenged weekly for 8 weeks. GSK744 LA, at plasma(More)
De novo RNA synthesis by hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been investigated using short RNA templates. Various templates including those derived from the HCV genome were evaluated by examining the early steps of de novo RNA synthesis. NS5B was shown to be able to produce an initiation dinucleotide(More)
Unique to pestiviruses, the N-terminal protein encoded by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genome is a cysteine protease (Npro) responsible for a self-cleavage that releases the N terminus of the core protein (C). This unique protease is dispensable for viral replication, and its coding region can be replaced by a ubiquitin gene directly fused in(More)