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The alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) system is the first line of defense against viral infection and a critical link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. IFN-alpha/beta secretion is the hallmark of cellular responses to acute RNA virus infections. As part of their survival strategy, many viruses have evolved mechanisms to counteract the(More)
VRX0466617 is a novel selective small-molecule inhibitor for Chk2 discovered through a protein kinase screening program. In this study, we provide a detailed biochemical and cellular characterization of VRX0466617. We show that VRX0466617 blocks the enzymatic activity of recombinant Chk2, as well as the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced activation of Chk2(More)
A novel series of highly potent substituted pyridone Pim-1 kinase inhibitors is described. Structural requirements for in vitro activity are outlined as well as a complex crystal structure with the most potent Pim-1 inhibitor reported (IC(50)=50 nM). A hydrogen bond matrix involving the Pim-1 inhibitor, two water molecules, and the catalytic core, together(More)
Many nucleoside analog drugs, such as ribavirin and viramidine, are activated or metabolized in vivo through 5'-phosphorylation. In this report, we determined the steady-state kinetic parameters for 5'-monophosphorylation of ribavirin and viramidine by adenosine kinase. The apparent Km for ribavirin is 540 microM, and k(cat) is 1.8 min-1. Its catalytic(More)
Picornaviruses utilize virally encoded RNA polymerase and a uridylylated protein primer to ensure replication of the entire viral genome. The molecular details of this mechanism are not well understood due to the lack of structural information. We report the crystal structure of human rhinovirus 16 3D RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (HRV16 3Dpol) at a 2.4-A(More)
Isothiazole analogs were discovered as a novel class of active-site inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase. The best compound has an IC(50) of 200 nM and EC(50) of 100 nM, which is a significant improvement over the starting inhibitor (1). The X-ray complex structure of 1 with HCV NS5B was obtained at a resolution of 2.2A, revealing that the inhibitor is(More)
GSK1265744 (GSK744) is an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor that has been formulated as a long-acting (LA) injectable suitable for monthly to quarterly clinical administration. GSK744 LA was administered at two time points 4 weeks apart beginning 1 week before virus administration, and macaques were challenged weekly for 8 weeks. GSK744 LA, at plasma(More)
The structures of both the native holo-HCV NS3/4A protease domain and the protease domain with a serine 139 to alanine (S139A) mutation were solved to high resolution. Subsequently, structures were determined for a series of ketoamide inhibitors in complex with the protease. The changes in the inhibitor potency were correlated with changes in the buried(More)
Ribavirin, part of the current first line combination therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, may cause haemolytic anaemia and poses a significant challenge to the clinical management of the disease. Viramidine, a prodrug of ribavirin, is currently under development. In-vitro partition demonstrated that viramidine had less association with RBCs(More)