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A rapid method for characterization and online detection of surfactin isomers was developed based on HPLC-MS(n) (n = 1, 2, 3) analyses, and many surfactin isomers were detected and characterized from the bioactive fraction of the mangrove bacterium Bacillus sp. Inhibitory activities of surfactin isomers on the overproduction of nitric oxide and the release(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV and co-infection with 2 or 3 viruses and evaluate risk factors among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan province, China. METHODS 2080 IDUs were recruited from 5 regions of Yunnan Province, China to detect the infection status of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Statistical(More)
BACKGROUND Co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV is highly prevalent in intravenous drug users (IDUs). Because of the proximity to the "Golden Triangle", HIV prevalence among the IDUs is very high in the China-Myanmar border region. However, there are few studies about co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV, especially in the region that belongs to(More)
The paper deals with the adaptive regulators for a class of first-order linear continuous-time plants, with different estimators and modified certainty-equivalence control law. We overcame the difficulty of the loss of stabilizability (or controllability) as the estimate of the plant gain is zero and corrected a few mistakes in the paper (Middleton and(More)
BACKGROUND Network analyses have been widely utilized to evaluate large datasets, but have not yet been used to explore factors associated with risk behaviours. In combination with traditional regression analysis, network analyses may provide useful information and highlight key factors for reducing needle sharing behaviours among people who inject drugs(More)
The three-dimensional structure of Gynoside A, an ocotillone-type triterpenoid glycoside isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, was determined in pyridine-d5 and DMSO-d6 solution through constrained molecular modeling using constraints derived from proton NMR spectra. The calculation yielded well-defined global minima. Except for some quantitative details(More)
BACKGROUND The China-Myanmar border is a particularly interesting region that has very high prevalence of and considerable diversity of HIV-1 recombinants. Due to the transient nature of their work, long-distance truck drivers (LDTDs) have a comparatively high potential to become infected with HIV-1 and further spread virus to other individuals in the area(More)
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