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Accurate QRS detection is an important first step for the analysis of heart rate variability. Algorithms based on the differentiated ECG are computationally efficient and hence ideal for real-time analysis of large datasets. Here, we analyze traditional first-derivative based squaring function (Hamilton-Tompkins) and Hilbert transform-based methods for QRS(More)
BACKGROUND Various transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil designs are available or have been proposed. However, key coil characteristics such as electric field focality and attenuation in depth have not been adequately compared. Knowledge of the coil focality and depth characteristics can help TMS researchers and clinicians with coil selection and(More)
We present the first computational study investigating the electric field (E-field) strength generated by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) electrode configurations in specific brain regions of interest (ROIs) that have putative roles in the therapeutic action and/or adverse side effects of ECT. This study also characterizes the impact of the white(More)
Deep-brain transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) could provide new, non-invasive therapeutic options for various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Figures of merit (FoMs) are proposed to evaluate and compare dTMS coil designs. These FoMs characterize the depth of electric field penetration, scalp stimulation, focality, and energy. Two coil(More)
We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double(More)
In this article, we review the parameters that define the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) electrical stimulus and discuss their biophysical roles. We also present the summary metrics of charge and energy that are conventionally used to describe the dose of ECT and the rules commonly deployed to individualize the dose for each patient. We then highlight the(More)
The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of white matter conductivity anisotropy on the electric field strength induced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We created an anatomically-realistic finite element human head model incorporating tissue heterogeneity and white matter conductivity anisotropy using structural magnetic resonance imaging(More)
We present a quantitative comparison of two metrics-neural stimulation strength and focality-in electrocon-vulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) using finite-element method (FEM) simulation in a spherical head model. Five stimulation modalities were modeled, including bilateral ECT, unilateral ECT, focal electrically administered seizure(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used, noninvasive method for stimulating nervous tissue, yet its mechanisms of effect are poorly understood. Here we report new methods for studying the influence of TMS on single neurons in the brain of alert non-human primates. We designed a TMS coil that focuses its effect near the tip of a recording(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES We attempted to prevent the development of working memory (WM) impairments caused by sleep deprivation using fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Novel aspects of our fMRI-guided rTMS paradigm included the use of sophisticated covariance methods to identify functional networks in imaging data, and the use of(More)