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Recent work has identified a new subset of effector T cells that produces interleukin (IL)-17 known as T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which is involved in the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases and is thought to be developmentally related to regulatory T (Treg) cells. Because of its importance for Treg cells, we examined the role of IL-2 in Th17 generation(More)
Periostin was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific factor and is highly expressed in the embryonic periosteum, cardiac valves, placenta, and periodontal ligament as well as in many adult cancerous tissues. To investigate its role during development, we generated mice that lack the periostin gene and replaced the translation start site and first(More)
T cell–derived cytokines are important in the development of an effective immune response, but when dysregulated they can promote disease. Here we identify a four-helix bundle cytokine we have called interleukin 31 (IL-31), which is preferentially produced by T helper type 2 cells. IL-31 signals through a receptor composed of IL-31 receptor A and oncostatin(More)
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (Socs) 3 is a cytokine-inducible inhibitor with critical but selective cell-specific effects. We show that deficiency of Socs3 in T cells had minimal effects on differentiation of T cells to the T helper (Th) 1 or Th2 subsets; accordingly, Socs3 had no effect on IL-12-dependent signal transducer and activator of(More)
This paper considers the security of transmission in buffer-aided decode-and-forward cooperative wireless networks. An eavesdropper which can intercept the data transmission from both the source and relay nodes is considered to threaten the security of transmission. Finite size data buffers are assumed to be available at every relay in order to avoid having(More)
We have reviewed humidity sensors based on various materials for both relative and absolute humidity, including ceramic, semiconducting, and polymer materials. In the majority of publications, there are few papers dealing with absolute humidity sensors, which have extensive applications in industry. We reviewed extensively absolute humidity sensors in this(More)
Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a scaling analysis method used to quantify long-range power-law correlations in signals. Many physical and biological signals are "noisy," heterogeneous, and exhibit different types of nonstationarities, which can affect the correlation properties of these signals. We systematically study the effects of three types of(More)
The discovery of a new lineage of helper T cells that selectively produces interleukin (IL)-17 has provided exciting new insights into immunoregulation, host defense and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Additionally, the discovery of this T cell subset has offered a fresh look at how the complexity of selective regulation of cytokine gene expression(More)
Type III IFNs (IFN-lambda/IL-28/29) are cytokines with type I IFN-like antiviral activities, which remain poorly characterized. We herein show that most cell types expressed both types I and III IFNs after TLR stimulation or virus infection, whereas the ability of cells to respond to IFN-lambda was restricted to a narrow subset of cells, including(More)